AbbreviatedResearch Plan: Quantitative, Qualitative, & Mixed Research Plans
AbbreviatedResearch Plan: Quantitative
Stressis more common among the college students, especially those who areaged between 18 and 25 years. This is because youths in this agegroup face a lot of challenges that include workload and the need toestablish social relationships. Stress affects their well-being,academic performance, and productivity (Lin & Yusoff, 2013). Thispaper will summarize a quantitative research plan that will be usedto study the impact of coping mechanisms and cognitive evaluation onthe ability of students to manage stress.
Thepurpose of the present research is to impact of cognitive evaluationand coping mechanisms on the ability of college students to managestress. The successful completion of the present study will provide ageneral overview of the experience of the college students withstress, the effectiveness of cognitive evaluation and copingmechanisms.
How does cognitive evaluation affect ability of college students to manage stress?
How does a cognitive mechanism affect the ability of the college students’ ability to manage stress?
Cognitive evaluation improves the students’ ability to manage stress.
Suitable coping mechanisms improve the students’ capacity to manage stress.
Theaim of the present research is to determine the impact of cognitiveevaluation and coping mechanisms on the capacity of college studentsto manage stress. This goal will be accomplished through aquantitative research design. A quantitative research design has beenselected for the present research because it minimizes the effects ofsubjectivity (Onwuegbuzue & Leech, 2015).
Theresearcher will recruit a group of college students aged between 18and 25 years because they perceived to be at the highest risks ofsuffering from stress compared to the general population. Theresearch will recruit a total of 30 college students from sixcolleges. Participants will be recruited using a random samplingtechnique. Random sampling reduces bias, which in turn enhances thereliability of the findings. The quantitative data will becollected using a Likert Scale, which refers to a psychometric scaleused in quantitative surveys (Vanek, 2012).
Theresearcher will take consideration of two major threats of validityincluding selection of subjects, instrumentation and selection ofsubjects (Ohlund & Yu, 2015). These threats of validity will beminimized by using a sampling technique (that reduces bias (randomsampling) and an approved data collection instrument (Likert Scale).
Thequantitative data related to the characteristics (such as age andgender) of the study participants will be analyzed using descriptivestatistics. The data that pertain to the relationship between theability to manage stress and coping mechanisms and cognitiveevaluation will be analyzed using correlation analysis in Excelsoftware.
Themost significant ethical consideration in the present research is therespect of the privacy of all study participants. To achieve this,the researcher will obtain an informed consent of each participant.The objective of the informed consent is to endure that allparticipants are aware of their rights, including their right to takepart in the research under no pressure, the right to withdraw withoutany penalty and benefits as well as the potential harms that theymight get by taking part in the study (Resnik, 2011).
Stresstends to be more common among college students because they facedifferent challenges that can be attributed to their age and theenvironment. However, the successful completion of the present studyis expected to indicate how coping mechanisms and cognitiveevaluation can help the college students manage stress.
Abbreviatedresearch plan: Qualitative design
Thework-related stress that elementary teachers suffer from received aspecial attention in the recent past. However, there are very fewstudies that have focused on the most effective strategies that theseteachers can use to manage stress in spite of the fact that stresshas been shown to reduce their productivity and mental as well astheir physical well-being (Kerr, Breen, Kelly & Miller, 2011).The present study will fill this gap by studying the relationshipbetween coping skills and the teacher’s capacity to manage thework-related stress.
Thepurpose of the present research is to determine the effectiveness ofcoping skills in helping primary elementary school teachers managework-related stress. The results of this research will expand thecurrent body of knowledge on the significance of training teachers onthe best ways of handling work-related stress.
Theresearch will seek to answer the question, “can coping skillsincreases the ability of elementary school teachers to managework-related stress?”
Theresearch hypothesis that equipping teachers with appropriate copingskills through training can increase their ability to managework-related stress
Theaim of the present study is to evaluate how increasing the copingskills of elementary school teachers through training can enhancetheir ability to manage work-related stress. A qualitative design hasbeen selected for the present research. This is because the humanreaction to stress is a subjective issue that can be better studiedusing a qualitative design (Kerr, Breen, Kelly & Miller, 2011).In addition, a qualitative design gives researchers an opportunity toconduct an in-depth investigation of the issue in question.
Theresearch will target the population of elementary school teacherswhere about 20 teachers will be recruited. These participants will besampled randomly since a random selection reduces chances for bias tooccur. The population of elementary teachers has been selected forthe present study because of their assumed high risk of sufferingfrom stress that is associated with the presence of disruptivestudents and heavy workload (Kerr, Breen, Kelly & Miller, 2011).
Thequalitative study will be accomplished through an in-depth interview,which will take nine minutes only in order to give interviewees anopportunity to make additional responses besides those sourcedthrough pre-determined interview questions. The data will becollected using a digital recorder as the interview proceeds.
Thekey threats to validity include the use of unrepresentative sampleand unsuitable statistical tests. These threats will be mitigated byusing a random sampling and verified data analysis technique.
Thedata will be analyzed using an inductive approach. This will involvegrouping of the qualitative data and identification of anyrelationships existing between the strategies for managing stress andindividuals’ capacity to manage stress.
Theconsideration of ethics in a scientific research ensures that theinterests and the rights of the participants are taken care of. Inthe present research, the research will protect these interests andrights by obtaining an informed consent of the student participants,which will ensure that they understand the fate of their privacy,potential risks and benefits of taking part in the research (Resnik,2011). In addition, the research will be supervised by a professor ofpsychology who will ensure that all measures are taken to protectparticipants.
Elementaryteachers are considered to be among the populations that are at ahigher risk of suffering from stress. Since there are a few studiesthat have focused on the best ways to help these teachers in managingtheir stress, the successful completion of the present study willmake a breakthrough in the field of psychology. It will establish thepossibility of enhancing the teacher’s capacity to managework-related stresses.
Abbreviatedresearch plan: Mixed design
Strategiesfor the management of stress are appropriate given that stressfulexperiences are unavoidable. Stress reduces the productivity of theaffected persons and affects their mental as well as their physicalhealth in a negative way (Pakan, 2015). The present study seeks toinvestigate the effectiveness of the general counseling in increasingthe ability of caregivers who serve older adults manage theirwork-related stress.
Thepurpose of the present research is to determine the effectiveness ofgeneral counseling in helping the caregivers of elderly personsmanage the work-related stress. The successful completion of thisstudy will provide a solution for the management of stress among thepopulation of caregivers, who are less considered by researchers.
Theresearch will answer the question “Does general counseling enhancedthe ability of the caregivers of the elderly people to managestress?”
Theresearch hypothesis that “general counseling empowers thecaregivers of elderly people to manage their work-related stress”
Theresearch will determine the effectiveness of general counseling inincreases the capacity of caregivers to manage stress. A mixedresearch design will be used to accomplish the aforementionedpurpose. A mixed design has been selected for the research because ithelps the researcher to get in-depth information than when usingeither of qualitative or quantitative design (Onwuegbuzue &Leech, 2015).
Theresearch will target a population of caregivers who server old adultsin designated long-term care facilities. The researcher will recruit25 care givers from five long-term care facilities to take part inthe research. These participants will be sampled randomly in order toreduce bias. The population of caregivers serving older adults hasbeen targeted in the present research because of their assumedpossibility of suffering from stress. This is because caregivers arein a regular contact with seniors who lead a painful life.
Datawas collected using a survey instrument, “Stress and Anxiety ShortAnswer Survey” that was issued to each participant. The capacity tomanage stress was the dependent variable while general counseling wasthe independent variable.
Thepossible threats to validity include inappropriate tests, existenceof confounding variables, and unrepresentative sample. These threatshave been mitigated by the use of a random sampling and verifiedstatistical test.
Descriptivestatistics will be used to analyze the quantitative data obtainedfrom the CPSS. For example, the researcher will get the mean afteradding the scores of all participants and dividing the total by thenumber of participants. The qualitative part of the data obtainedfrom the short answer survey will be coded to facilitate thecomparison of the perceived level of stress of participants and theirrespective duration of general counseling.
Theresearcher will consider ethical practices in research by obtaining awritten consent of the participant from all participants (Resnik,2011). The researcher will also obtain the authorization from theuniversity’s board of ethics, which will review the proposal forthe present research and provide appropriate ethical guidelinesbefore approving it.
Stressis quite inevitable in human life, but the most important thing isone’s ability to manage it in order to avoid its negative effects.Stress among the caregivers of older adults can be attributed totheir experiences at work, which include the regular contact withsenior members of the society who living in pain after suffering fromlong-term illnesses. General counseling is considered to be anappropriate strategy for addressing this type of stress.
Comparingweaknesses and strengths of different research methods
Thequalitative method allows researcher to conduct an in-depth analysisof an issue, which leads to the generation of new theories of ideas,which is quite difficult to achieve when using a quantitative method(Onwuegbuzue & Leech, 2015). For example, the use of aqualitative design to study stress among the elementary teachersmight lead to the development of an effective strategy to deal withstress among this population. In addition, qualitative method allowsresearchers to explore new areas of research with the objective ofproviding solutions. This will make it possible to determine whystress occurs among the elementary teachers and how to increase theircapacity to manage the stress.
Thequalitative method lacks the precision that can be achieved whenusing a quantitative method. This means that the researcher may beable to develop new patterns and themes, which take differentdirections and leads to imprecision. In addition, qualitative methodis inherently biased, which leads to personal subjectivity(Onwuegbuzue & Leech, 2015).
Quantitativemethod allows the use of statistics, which in turn permits thegeneralization of the findings (Onwuegbuzue & Leech, 2015). Forexample, the findings of the research on a sample of 30 collegestudents can be assumed to be the same for all college students. Inaddition, a quantitative method provides precise numerical valuesthat are more valuable than the descriptive information that isprovided by the qualitative method.
Thequantitative research may, at times, call for the use of largesamples, which makes the research more expensive and take longertime. In addition, interviews conducted when using quantitativemethods are quite inflexible and this may lead to statistical errors.Moreover, quantitative research denies the researcher an opportunityto study the experience of the study participants because theobjective is to test a pre-determined hypothesis (Onwuegbuzue &Leech, 2015).
Mixedmethod provides researchers with a realistic approach that can beused to study social sciences since human reality cannot beconsidered to be exclusively quantitative or qualitative in nature.This means that using a mixed method is more realistic than usingeither of them. Mixed method is more holistic because the researcheris not constrained and can use assumptions of either of theconventional methods to come up with more reliable findings(Onwuegbuzue & Leech, 2015).
Amixed research is more expensive and takes more time than when usingeither a quantitative or qualitative method. This is because theresearcher combines procedures for both methods and needs to betrained or familiarize with the two approaches (Onwuegbuzue &Leech, 2015). Combining the two methods also reduce the chances forthe detection of errors or poor quality since the researcher iscloaked with assumptions of the two approaches.
Thethree research approaches considered in this paper provide a basicplatform upon which scientific researchers can address salient issuesaffecting human beings. The qualitative and quantitative approachesseem to be antagonistic, but the mixed method combines their basicassumptions and goals. This brings a holistic perspective in a givenscientific inquiry. Although each of three approaches has severallimitations, it is undeniable that that each of them has incrediblevalue in the process of creating some parameter to be used byresearchers in augmenting the existing body of knowledge on differentissues, such as stress management among the college students.
Kerr,A., Breen, J., Kelly, C., & Miller, K. (2011). A qualitativestudy of workplace stress and coping secondary teachers in Ireland.IrishJournal of Applied Social Studies,11 (1), 27-38.
Lin,H. J., & Yusoff, M. B. (2013). Psychological distress, sources ofstress and coping strategy in high school students. InternationalMedical Journal,20 (6), 672-676.
Ohlund,B. & Yu, C. (2015). Threats to validity of research design. PXEducation.Retrieved August 14, 2015, fromhttp://web.pdx.edu/~stipakb/download/PA555/ResearchDesign.html
Onwuegbuzue,J. & Leech, L. (2015). On becoming a pragmatic researcher: Theimportance of combining qualitative and quantitative researchmethodologies. InternationalJournal of Social Research Methodology,8 (5), 375-387.
Pakan,A. (2015). Counselingto reduce stress and anxiety: A mixed method study.New York, NY: State University of New York.
Resnik,B. (2011). Whatis ethics in research and why is it important.Research Triangle Park, NC: National Institute of EnvironmentalHealth Science.
Vanek,C. (2012, April 24). Likert scale: What is it? When to use it? How toanalyze it? Survey.Retrieved August 14, 2015, fromhttps://www.surveygizmo.com/survey-blog/likert-scale-what-is-it-how-to-analyze-it-and-when-to-use-it/