Adaptation Procedures in English Translation

AdaptationProcedures in English Translation

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Tableof Contents

1.0 Introduction 3

1.1 Underlying rationale 4

1.2 Study background 6

1.3 The aims and objectives of the term paper 7

1.4 Organization of the term paper 8

2.0 Literature review 8

2.1 Theories of translation 9

2.1.1 Interruptive theory of translation 9

2.1.2 Translation theory by Nida 9

2.2 Adaptation procedures 11

2.2.1 Adaptation procedures proposed by Dalisle 11

2.3 Adaptation procedures by Vinay and Darbelnet 13

2.3.1 Borrowing 13

2.3.2 Calque 14

2.3.3 Literal translation 14

2.3.4 Transposition 14

2.3.5 Modulation 15

2.3.6 Equivalent 15

2.3.7 Adaptation 15

2.4 Adaptation procedures proposed by Newmark 15

3.0 Study methodology 17

Theoretical models for analysis 17

The theory of analysis 17

The material used 18

Procedure 19

Data analysis and discussion 20

Borrowing 20

Calque 21

Literal translation 21

Transposition 22

Modulation 23

Equivalent 23

Adaptation 24

Other adaptation procedures analyzed 24

Data analysis 25

Conclusion 25

References 27

Appendix 29

1.0Introduction

Translationis the course of changing the information from the source language tothe target language. Adaptation procedures are the employed practiceto guide the entire process of translation. Translation has been inuse since time immemorial and is applied to transmit spoken orwritten information from the source language to equivalent spoken orwritten target language. Translation seeks to replicate precisegrammatical and lexical features of the original language by gettingequivalents in the target language. Additionally, translation aims toretain all the factual meaning of the source texts in the targetlanguage. Since time immemorial up to late, translation has beenplaying a vital role of enhancing individual to understand otherLanguages than their native language hence, need to understand theadaptation procedures adapted during the process of translation. Withprogress of time, the need for translation has increases withincrease in the urge to understand other languages alongside the needto understand the kind of translation procedures adapted to arrive atthe target texts from the source texts. It might be challenging toconduct a pure translation exercise of converting texts, phrases, oreven sentences from a source language to a target language withoutadapting translation procedures. Hence, the current era dominated byinformation, forces translators to understand the adaptationprocedures applied in the translation process for them to translate alarge volume of information within a very short period as translationhas become more of business opportunity.

Thepaper is a descriptive study that seeks to describe the variousadaptation procedures applied in the English translation intranslating particular texts, phrases and sentences from the sourcelanguage to the target language. The paper further seeks to analyzethe kind of adaptation procedures that are rampantly applied and thereason for using those procedures. To achieve the objectives of thestudy, the paper conducted a close analysis of the source textsagainst the target text targeting the procedures adapted to attain asuccessful translation.

1.1Underlying rationale

Thecritical task which English language persist to play in the globalcommunication alongside the increasing impact of the Arabic societyon global dealings have fashioned the need for language translationfrom either Arabic to English or from English to Arabic. The aspecthas encouraged educational regulations in Arabic nations to starttranslation courses to enable the understanding of English, which isa foreign language by their students. Similar, the European nationshave adapted translation courses to make the language easy tounderstand. Generally, the process of language translation has playeda vital role in creation of jobs for interpreters of both texttranslation and speech translation in conferences. Adaptation oftranslation procedures plays a major role in the process oftransferring the information from source language to target language.If language were a mere classification for a set common or universalthought, then it would be cheap to learn and understand a secondlanguage. Nevertheless, due to different structure and arrangement ofwords in different languages it makes it difficult to understandthose languages hence need to adapt procedures to make thetranslation process easy. For instance, Culler (1976) supposes thatthe concept of one language differs from another language and thatlanguages are not taxonomy as different languages does organize theworld differently. In conjunction with that, there are two types oftranslation namely literary translation and technical translation.Literary, translation in one way or another is different fromtechnical translation and the goal of every text may as well differfrom the other text due to the kind of procedures adapted during thetranslation process. Hence, translation process need to adaptprocures that standardizes the process of translation to facilitate abetter understanding of how to convert information from the sourcelanguage to the target language. Literary translation is one of themajor ways of passing information across different cultures as thetexts exhibit cultural aspect of the represented lives as depicted inthe book of “one thousand and one nights (Al-Shaykh, 2013).”

Dueto the major challenge of translating various texts phrases andsentences from the source language to the target languagesuccessfully without changing or distorting the information, there isneed to adapt translation procedures that will guide the translationprocess. For instance, in attempt to translate texts, translators mayface a challenge where phrases symbolizing objects, phenomena andfacts embedded in the source language, making those phrases to beunique or so specific hence lacking the equivalent match to thetarget language. Additionally, translators may face a challenge ofthe language organization or structure of different languages.However if translators adapt specific translation procedures they mayovercome that translation challenge. The reason for not being equalmay result from the fact that translator did not apply the adaptationprocedures necessary in converting the source language to the targetlanguage. It is clear that the difference in language posses a majorchallenge in language translation than it posses in languagestructures. When language difference exist, it is impossible orextremely challenging to achieve a successful transfer of texts fromthe source language to the target language and it all depends on thekind of adaptation procedures involved in translating the involvedlanguages. Any slightest disparity from the source language impliesan act of rebellion against the language represented.

Asthe demand for book translation from English to Arabic booms, thedemand subsequently raises new translation challenges. There are newmodes and new styles presented in translation with every new phraseor word presented in the modern standard Arabic language. The newmodes and styles presented are pound to challenge the idiomatic modeswith which the Arabic readers are acquainted. Previous authors likeHongwei suppose that language acts as a portrait for cultures and itmirrors other parts of the culture presented. The same languagesupports that culture and it helps in developing individualsrepresented. The exceptional aspects of language differentiate itfrom all other aspects of culture and make it outstandingly importantfor conveying culture. The author further contributes that, languagesacts as a life-blood of culture and culture is the track along whichlanguage structure and build up.

1.2Study background

Variousstudies concerning the translation procedures have been conducted inattempt to understand the definition and the entire process oftranslation. that contributes to no clear definition of the wordtranslation as different authors tends to define it differently. Forinstance, Toury defines translation as the transformation of texts,phrases, or sentences from source language to the target language.However, literary translation can be termed as a mean of giving analternative version of reality. The definition clearly indicates thatthe act of translation comprise of two languages. Hence, theknowledge of dealing with linguistic aspects acts as a vital assetfor the translator. In many occasions, most translators have termedthemselves as the positive assets as they open windows for the targetreaders to be able to understand words and phrases of unfamiliarlanguages. However, translation theorists criticize the process oftranslation as the theorist see the translation process as a threatto the cultures presented. In conjunction with the theoristcriticism, the theorists have tried to examine the kind of adaptationprocedures involved in the foreign cultures represented by the sourcelanguage. Those theories have attempted to understand whetheradapting the translation procedures in the English translation of onethousand and one nights does aid the whole process of translation(Al-Shaykh, 2013).

Thekind of translation that is currently accepted

Inthe current translation sphere, the kind of translation that isaccepted in the mainstream usually share features like, transparency,smoothness, and fluency. The features make the current translationeasy to appreciate the target language as it contains some traces oftranslation that reads as if the original translator had writtenthose texts in the target language[ CITATION Cat14 l 1033 ].Additionally, what differentiates the two languages is thereplacement of something familiar to the target language by a foreignlanguage. That brings us to the adaptation procedures in the Englishtranslation where the translator replaces what the target readerknows, with what the target readers does not know.

1.3The aims and objectives of the term paper

Theaim of the term paper is to study the adaptation procedures appliedin English translation in translating particular texts, phrases andsentences from the source language to the target language. The paperfurther seeks to analyze the kind of adaptation procedures that arerampantly applied and the reason for using those procedures. Toachieve the objectives of the study, the paper conducted a closeanalysis of the source texts against the target text targeting theprocedures adapted to attain a successful translation. The paper aimsto use the case study of the folks and short stories of one thousandand one nights (Al-Shaykh, 2013). Additionally the paper uses aqualitative study methodology in attempt to analyze those proceduresto attain accurate findings.

1.4Organization of the term paper

Theterm paper is set into six chapters starting with the introductionchapter that offers an oversight of the study. The introductionchapter illustrates the purpose of the study, the underlyingrationale, the study background, and the aim of the paper. The secondchapter is the literature review that provides a detailed outlook ofthe adaptation procedures applied in the English translationfeaturing the adaptation procedures applied in the folktales andshort stories of “one thousand and one nights.” The literaturereviews translation theory, the translation procedures adapted byNewmark, Dalisle, and Vinay and Darbelnet. The third chapter is theabout the type of study methodology that the study applied. The studymethodology is further broken down to the theories of analysis, thematerials, and procedures. Fourth is the study discussion andanalysis that will use adaptation procedures proposed by Vinay andDarbelnet. Finally, is the conclusion that summarizes the adaptationprocedures employed in the study and the summary of the studyanalysis and the findings.

2.0Literature review

Variousscholars have conducted studies regarding language translation fromthe source language to the target language. In addition, thosescholars have also conducted studies on the methods and proceduresapplied in the translation process. However, not everything has beenexhausted in the study of the adaptation procedures in the Englishtranslation of one thousand and one nights (Al-Shaykh, 2013). Thesection reviews the theory of translation by Nida and the sevenadaptation procedures proposed by Dalisle and Newmark.

2.1Theories of translation

Thisisassumptions about what people think about the process of translation.The term paper discusses the interruptive theory of translation andthe translation theory by Nida.

2.1.1Interruptive theory of translation

Interpretivetheory is among the leading theory of translation. Among the scholarswho mainly formed foundation of the theory and deserve recognitionare Seleskovitch and Lederer of Paris. In effort to intricate theentire process of translation, they identified the three phases oftranslation namely understanding, deverbalization, andre-expression. The phase of understanding illustrates the need fortranslators to have sense on the linguistic knowledge before adaptingthe translation procedure. Such understanding is not only attainedfrom the experience but also from supplements like contextual andencyclopedia knowledge. Deverbalization phase elaborates theunderstanding of translation based on the meaning of the text orphrases unlike the linguistic form of those words. Re-expressionphase seeks to elaborate the adaptation procedures based on both themeaning and the linguistic form of texts and phrases during thetranslation process.

2.1.2Translation theory by Nida

EugeneNida is among the first scholars to come up with the concept ofLanguage translation. In the theory of translation, Eugene Nidaaffirms translation as a combined science that represents specializedskills, which also require visual understanding. Skilled translatorsmust adapt translation procedures for them to acquire a uniqueaptitude for sensing the contiguous natural equivalent of a text,phrase, or sentence whether oral or written. Nida further proposesthat, translation is a skill, which largely relies on the adaptationprocedures in various disciplines linguistic and theories ofcommunication to mention.

EugeneNida argues that it is not possible to translate the segment of asource language equivalent to that of the target language due to thedifference in the structure of different languages. Hence, the needfor translators to adapt translation procedures in order to guaranteea precise translation of texts, phrases sentences and paragraphs fromone language to a second language. Nida adapts two translationprocedures namely technical procedure and organizational procedure[ CITATION Nid64 l 1033 ].The technical procedure works in a manner that before thetranslation, the procedures tries to analyse the source language andthe target language. The procedure then makes a thorough research ofthe original language texts, phrases, and sentences before makingeffort to translate the information to the target language. Finally,the procedure makes conclusion of the semantic and syntacticestimates of the two languages. On the other hand, organizationalprocedures work in the following manner. The procedure starts byreevaluating the translation attempts that are made in translatingtexts from source language to target language. The procedure thentries to contrast the translation attempts with the existingtranslations available of the same texts conducted by differenttranslators. The procedure further adapts the feature of checking theeffectiveness of the translation process by asking the targetlanguage readers to evaluate the translation efficiency andeffectiveness. Finally, the procedure tries to analyse the reactionof the readers in finding out whether the adaptation procedure waseffective during the translation process.

2.2Adaptation procedures

Adaptationprocedures are the employed practices that help translator and theinterpreters in translating information from the source language tothe target. The major translation procedures adapted in the Englishtranslation are borrowing, transposition, literal translation,naturalization, Calque, and direct transfer to mention. The sectiondiscus some of the adaptation procedures propose by: Dalisle,Newmark, Vinay, and Darbelnet.

2.2.1Adaptation procedures proposed by Dalisle

Thework of Dalisle centers the adaptation procedures in the Englishtranslation of one thousand and one nights (Al-Shaykh, 2013). In hiswork, Dalisle adapted nine translation procedures in attempt toelaborate the process of language translation. According to Dalisle,different procedures work differently depending on the translationfactors like economic factor, social factors, and time factor tomention. The work of Dalisle identifies with adaptation procedureslike close translation, calque, borrowing, direct translation,transposition, adaptation, amplification, concentration, and finallyimplication[ CITATION Del80 l 1033 ].Thetable below demonstrates the adaptation procedures affirmed byDalisle and how, the procedures work during the translation process.

Table1: Dalisle’s adaptation procedures

Adaptation procedure

Application of the translation procedure

Close translation

The procedure works by transferring the source language grammar and the order of words alongside the primary meanings of the source language.

Additionally the procedure translates the information by matching the source language words with the target language words despite the isolation difference of the original meaning.

Calque

The procedure adapts literal translation of organizational names and phrases in transferring the source texts, and phrases into the target texts or phrases.

Borrowing

The procedure works by transferring a source language word to a target language for the purpose of stylistic aspect or due to the fact that the target language lacks the lexicalized correspondence.

Direct transfer

The procedure first adapts the normal pronunciation of the source language before adapting the typical morphology of the target language.

Transposition

Recategorization- the translation procedure works in a manner that it changes the grammar from the source language to the target language, positions to adjectives, or even from singular to plural.

Denominalization- the procedure adapts translation preference of certain words in conjunction with the language involved.

Recasting- the procedure modifies the order of units in the source texts for it to confirm to the idiomatic constraints of the target texts.

Adaptation

The procedure tends to replace the situation of the source language by a similar situation of the target language during the translation process.

Amplification

The adaptation procedure tries to use additional words in the target text to emphasize an idea of source text as the correspondence of the source text and that of the target text cannot be expressed with few words.

Implication

The procedure intends to increase the economy of the target text without using the information elements of the source text.

Concentration

The procedure tends to reduce words in the target text from the source text.

2.3Adaptation procedures by Vinay and Darbelnet

Thework of Vinay and Darbelnet borrows the idea of adaptation proceduresin the English translation of one thousand and one nights”, inelaborating the entire translation procedures applied in informationtranslation. Vinay and Darbelnet adapted seven translation proceduresnamely, borrowing, Calque, literature translation, transposition,modulation, equivalence, and adaptation in attempt to understand theprocess of language translation. The section elaborates theapplication of each procedure in the translation as adapted by Vinayand Darbelnelt.

2.3.1Borrowing

Asput forth by Vinay and Darbelnet, borrowing procedure neutrally,takes a word or an expression from the source language and uses thatword in the target language. The procedure seeks to confirmpronunciation rules or the rules of grammar. The procedure is vitalespecially in the translation of technical texts or in the conceptsthat are indefinite. In addition to the affirmation brought forthconcerning the adaptation procedure of borrowing, Haugen alsocommented on the three available possibilities that may occur in theborrowing procedure. The first possibility is that of taking a wordor an expression from the source language to the target languagewithout changing the form or the meaning of the intended words duringthe translation process[ CITATION Pau09 l 1033 ].The second possibility is that of loaning the words or the expressionof the original language in the target language without changing themeaning but changing the form of the original words or the originalexpression. Lastly, according to Haugen is the possibility ofborrowing the entire meaning of the words and expression irrespectivethe fact that some part of the text native and the other partborrowed.

2.3.2Calque

Calqueis the adaptation procedure in language translation where thetranslation process emulates the structure or the method ofexpression of the source texts. The procedure may propose to initiatea different organization that is odd from the target text.

2.3.3Literal translation

Theprocedure works by transferring the grammar and idioms of the sourcetexts to the target text. The unique feature about the adaptationprocedure is that, the procedure is reversible and complete by itsown.

2.3.4Transposition

Transpositionprocedure works by substitute one word category with another wordwithout distorting the meaning of the information. In addition, theprocedure adapts the change in grammar that takes place in thetranslation from the source language to the text language.

2.3.5Modulation

Modulais a translation procedure that modifies the point of view to allowthe translator to express the same phenomenon in a different way. Theprocedure occurs when there is a change of perspective accompaniedwith a lexical change in the target language. The procedure works bychanging the value of the source text in translation from negative topositive or from negative to positive.

2.3.6Equivalent

Thetranslation procedure translates the source language texts in thesame situation but with different structural means. For thetranslation process to be a success adapting the equivalentprocedure, the process must create a new situation in the sourcelanguage that may be considered equivalent with that of the targetlanguage.

2.3.7Adaptation

Theadaptation procedure is adapted in circumstances where the conditionsin the source language are indefinite in the target culture. Theprocedure tends to create a new situation that is similar orequivalent to the target language.

2.4Adaptation procedures proposed by Newmark

Incrowning the literature review part is the adaptation proceduresproposed by Newmark. The work of Newmark centers the adaptationprocedures in the English translation of “one thousand and onenights in describing the process of language translation (Al-Shaykh,2013). In his work, Newmark adapted nine translation procedures inattempt to elaborate the process of language translation. The work ofNewmark identifies with adaptation procedures like naturalization,synonyms, deletion, absolute completion, autonomous creation,dislocation, compensation, and attenuation[ CITATION New81 l 1033 ].The table below demonstrates the adaptation procedures affirmed byNewmark and how, the procedures work during the translation process.

Table2. Adaptation procedures affirmed by Newmark

Adaptation procedure

Application

synonymy

The procedure resorts to parallel referencing in attempt to avoid repetition of texts.

Naturalization

The procedure tends to bring the meaning and the form of the source language into the target language .

Compensation

The procedure allows for the in texting of fictional cultural reference in the source language.

Dislocation

The procedure displaces some texts of the same reference. universal

Deletion

The procedures tend to omit the source language in the process of translation

Absolute compensation

Translation process uses a neutral reference in this particular procedure

Autonomous creation

The procedure allows for the in texting of fictional cultural reference in the source language

Limited compensation

The translation procedure uses a different but close reference in the target language from the source language.

Attenuation

In the procedure, the translation process tries to replace a strong reference that is unacceptable for a soft reference that is acceptable in the target culture.

3.0Study methodology

Pickingthe most appropriate research methodology in any study is significantin enhancing the success of the study in question. A right researchmethodology guarantees the accurate research findings resulting tothe probability of relying on the study findings. It is based on thedispute that the methodology chapter tends to converse the researchmethodology that the qualitative study used in its effort toaccomplish the predetermined research objectives alongside to testthe formulated research hypotheses. The chapter’s outline is asfollow: the theoretical model for analysis, the materials used in thequalitative study, the adaptation procedures used, and the frameworkof study.

Theoreticalmodels for analysis

Previousscholars have proposed several models of analysis about theadaptation procedures used by interpreters. However, the paperdiscusses the interpretive theory of translation.

Thetheory of analysis

Interpretivetheory is among the leading theory of translation. Among the scholarswho primary produced the basis of the theory and deserve recognitionare Seleskovitch and Lederer of Paris. In attempt to elaborate theentire process of translation, they identified the three phases oftranslation namely understanding, deverbalization, andre-expression. The phase of understanding illustrates the need fortranslators to have sense on the linguistic knowledge before adaptingthe translation procedure. Such understanding is not only attainedfrom the experience but also from supplements like contextual andencyclopedia knowledge. Deverbalization phase elaborates theunderstanding of translation based on the meaning of the text orphrases unlike the linguistic form of those words. Re-expressionphase seeks to elaborate the adaptation procedures based on both themeaning and the linguistic form of texts and phrases during thetranslation process.

Thematerial used

Thepaper is a qualitative study with a descriptive nature. The casestudy is about adaptation procedures in the English translation ofthe book “one thousand and one nights” by Burton (Al-Shaykh,2013). The book of one thousand and one nights is a collection offolk tales and stories of the Asian continent that was complied inArabic during the 10thcenturies. The book is among the most celebrated translation fromArabic to English by Burton. The story of one thousand and one nightsis selected in this particular study because of its massiveadaptation procedures applied in the translation process. The storyof one thousand and one nights is popular for its themes and style.For instance, in the story, the theme of moral, which is the majortheme, is described in details. Further, the story elaborates themesof esteem for elders, theme of fairness, theme of recalling God andthe adoration of relatives. The translation adaptation proceduresemployed a difficult style in the first translation process that wasdifficult for the audience to understand the information. However,with need for understanding other languages and cultures due toglobalization, the translation process adapted an easy translationprocess that enabled the readers to understand both Arabic andEnglish languages. All the adaptation procedures used in the studyare the samples of the adaptation procedures used in the story of onethousand and one nights and no specific sampling is used. The paperuses the adaptation procedures proposed by Newmark in analyzing thestudy. The adaptation procedures adapted by Newmark are essential,unique and the most current strategies applied in translation processhence the preference.

Procedure

Thepaper uses three adaptation procedures of Vinay and Darbelnet inanalyzing the adaptation procedures in language translation. Theadaptation procedures employed in the analysis of the paper are theborrowing procedure, literal translation procedure and transpositionprocedure.

Table3.Table summary of the adaptation procedures applied by Dalisle

Newmark,Vinay, and Darbelnet

Newmark

Vinay and Darbelnet

Dalisle

synonymy

Borrowing

Borrowing

Naturalization

Calque

Calque

Compensation

Literal translation

Direct translation

Dislocation

Transposition

Close translation

Deletion

Modulation

Adaptation

Absolute compensation

Equivalency

Amplification

Autonomous creation

Adaptation

Concentration

Limited compensation

Implication.

Attenuation

Theoccurrence of the adaptation procedures is an indication of thefrequency in the adaptation of the procedure in the Englishtranslation. There are those procedures that are adapted more oftenby almost all interpreters as they translate texts and speech fromsource language to target language. The frequency in use depends onthe theme of translation, social and cultural aspects of bothlanguages, and economic aspects to mention. In data analysis, theliteral translation procedure may tend to adapt translation procedureand behalf in the following manner from the source language to targettext.

Source language (English)

Target language (Arabic )

The two black hounds

الامتناع عن السفر

Abstain from travelling

وهما كلاب الصيد السوداء

Dataanalysis and discussion

Thesection gives examples of adaptation procedures applied in thestrategies proposed by Vinay and Darbelnet. The section will analysethe most adapted procedures in the story of one thousand and onenights.

Borrowing

Asillustrated above, borrowing procedure is the one where translatorstakes a word or an expression from the source language and uses thatword in the target language. The procedure seeks to confirmpronunciation rules or the rules of grammar. Borrowing can either bepure, mixed loans or loan blends. The book of one thousand and onenights does not adapt the translation procedure of borrowing in itstranslation process.

Calque

Incalque strategy, translators adapt translation procedure of emulatingthe structure or the method of expression of the source texts. Theprocedure may propose to initiate a different organization that isodd from the target text. In the short stories of one thousand andone nights, the procedure is applied to translate phrases like apiece of gold and a piece of silver. For instance, a piece of gold istranslated to deemar and a piece of silver translated to dirhem

Literaltranslation

Inthe strategy, the translator tends to transfer the grammar and theidioms of the source text to the target text. This procedure has theunique features of completeness and the ability to reverse the textto the original language. For instance, the particular adaptationprocedure is adapted in the folk tales and stories of “one thousandand one nights.” The table below illustrates some of the exampletexts that adapted literal translation procedure.

Source language

Target language

Adaptation procedure applied

Abstain from travelling

الامتناع عن السفر

Literal translation

The two black hounds

وهما كلاب الصيد السوداء

Literal translation

I give myself to thee

أعطي نفسي اليك

Literal translation

Neither favor from fortune do I gain, nor profit from the work of my hands,

لا صالح من ثروة يمكنني كسب، ولا ربح من عمل يدي

Literal translation

Transposition

Inthe transposition procedure, interpreters tend to substitute one wordcategory with another word category without distorting the meaning ofthe information. In addition, the procedure adapts the change ingrammar that takes place in the translation from the source languageto the text language. The story of one thousand and one nights adaptstransposition procedure in translating the information from sourcelanguage to target language. The table below analyses some of thewords, sentences, and phrases that adapted the strategy during theprocess of translation.

Source language

Target language

Adapted translation procedure

To act justice

التصرف العدالة

Transposition

What we inherited from the ancestors

ما ورثناه من الأجداد

Transposition

Horsemen

فرسان

Transposition

Empire

إمبراطورية

Transposition

King

ملك

Transposition

A Mohammadan woman is not allowed to show her face to any men

لا يسمح للمرأة المحمدي لإظهار وجهها أمام أحد من الرجال

Transposition

Seeing that this company had girded on the saddles

وترى أن هذه الشركة قد محزم على السروج

Transposition

To repair to thy overflowing river, I came with my jar.&quot

لإصلاح لخاصتك النهر المتدفق، جئت مع جرة بلدي &quot.

Transposition

Cleansed his net

تطهير مرماه

Transposition

We did well to them, and they returned us the contrary and such, by my life, is the conduct of the wicked.

فعلنا جيدا لهم، وعادوا لنا عكس ذلك؛ وعلى هذا الأساس، من خلال حياتي، هو سلوك شرير.

Transposition

Modulation

Inmodulation procedure, translators tend to modify the point of view ofthe information that needs translation to allow the translationprocess to express the same phenomenon in a different way. Theprocedure occurs when there is a change of perspective accompaniedwith a lexical change in the target language. The procedure adaptsthe translation features of changing the value of the source text intranslation from negative to positive or from negative to positive.

Equivalent

Thetranslation procedure translates the source language texts in thesame situation but with different structural means. For thetranslation process to be a success adapting the equivalentprocedure, the process must create a new situation in the sourcelanguage that may be considered equivalent with that of the targetlanguage.

Adaptation

Interpreterstend to adapt the particular translation procedure in circumstanceswhere the condition in the source language is indefinite from thetarget language. The procedure seeks to create a new situation thatis similar or equivalent to the target language.

Otheradaptation procedures analyzed

Thestudy analyzed omission or deletion a translation procedure that thestory of one thousand and one nights adapted. Vinay and Darbelnet didnot adapt the omission strategy in describing various adaptationprocedures that English translation imitates. However, it wasimportant to look at procedure, as it was adapted in the book.Omission procedure is the translation procedure where theinterpreters deletes or omits some source words in the targetlanguage.

Source language

Target language

Adaptation procedure

I went forth with him, drunk with no wine, from the extreme joy and happiness that I received, and arrived at his house, where his daughter received me, and kissed my hand and the calf appeared to me, and cringed upon me

I خرج معه، في حالة سكر مع لا النبيذ، من الفرح الشديد والسعادة التي وصلتني، ووصل إلى منزله، حيث ابنته تلقت لي، وقبلت يدي. وظهر العجل لي، ومتذلل على عاتقي

Omission

O lord of the kings of the Jánn

يا رب ملوك جن

Omission

This is a wonderful tale and I present to God a third of my declare to his blood.

هذه هي قصة رائعة. وأقدم الله ثلث تعلن جهدي لدمه.

Omission

Dataanalysis

Fromthe qualitative study of the adaptation procedures used in theEnglish translation, the book of one thousand and one nights adaptedsome of the translation procedures proposed by Vinay and Darbelnet.There are those procedures that were applied most while othersaveragely while other procedures were not applied at all. Forinstance, the book applied transposition and literal translationfrequently compared to other procedures. Calque translation procedurewas also applied but not as often as the other two. While otherprocedures like adaptation, equivalent, modulation, and borrowingwere not applicable.

Conclusion

Thestudy indicates that various studies adapt different translationprocedures up to different extents. There are those procedures thatare adapted more often while other are averagely used and otherstotally neglected. As the demand for translation of languages raisesso as to the demand to understand, the various adaptation proceduresapplied in the translation process[ CITATION Loe91 l 1033 ].The paper has managed to study various adaptations employed byvarious studies in attempt to understand the whole procedure oflanguage translation. As identified in the current study, translationprocedures are essential as they guide the interpreters in theprocess of transferring information from the source language to thetarget. Translation procedureshelp the interpreters to understand how different texts, words,sentences, and even paragraphs behave when they are translated to thetarget language.

Thestudy concludes that the current translation procedures adaptfeatures of transparency, fluency, and smoothness. Such features makethe current translation easy to appreciate the target language as itcontains some traces of translation that reads as if the originaltranslator had written those texts in the target language. Forinstance, the feature is clearly depicted in the story of onethousand and one nights in the adaptation feature of literaltranslation or in direct translation. Additionally, the study hasmanaged to illustrate that, what differentiates the two languages isthe replacement of something familiar to the target language by aforeign language.

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Sánchez,F. J. L. (2003).&nbspLegalEnglish and translation: : theory &amp practice : annotated textsand documents.San Vicente (Alicante: Club Universitario.

Newmark,P. (1981). Approaches to Translation, Oxford: Pergamon Press. (1988).A Text book of Translation, London: Prentice Hall. Nida, Eugene A.(1964). Towards a Science of Translating: with Special Reference

Nida,Eugene A. (1964). Towards a Science of Translating: with SpecialReference to Principles and Procedures Involved in Bible Translating,Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

Loescher,W. (1991).&nbspTranslationperformance, translation process and translationstrategies.&nbspTuebingen:Guten Narr.

Appendix

No

Source language

Target language

Adaptation procedure

1

A kingdom

A المملكة

Literal translation

2

justice

عدالة

,,

3

king

ملك

Literal translation

4

The empire

الإمبراطورية

Deletion

5

Arrived

وصل

6

House

بيت

7

God

الله

8

Empire

إمبراطورية

9

present to God

الحاضر إلى الله

10

A piece of gold

قطعة من الذهب

11

A piece of silver

قطعة من الفضة

12

Wonderful tale

قصة رائعة

13

Folk stories

14

extreme joy and happiness

الفرح الشديد والسعادة

15

my declare to his blood.

أعلن الخاصة بي لدمه.

16

O lord of the kings of the Jánn

يا رب ملوك ج

Omission

17

Struck off

شطب

18

lacking in sense and religion

تفتقر إلى الحس والدين

19

Drink the cup of death

شرب كوب من الموت

20

present to God

الحاضر إلى الله

21

Abstain from travelling

الامتناع عن السفر

Literal translation

22

I give myself to thee

أعطي نفسي اليك

Literal translation

23

Meanwhile

وفي الوقت نفسه

Addition

24

To embrace someone

لاحتضان شخص

25

drunk with no wine

في حالة سكر مع لا النبيذ

26

Hasten

أسارع

27

The care bestowed

رعاية أنعم

28

The two black hounds

وهما كلاب الصيد السوداء

29

Gulp the cup of destruction

بلع كأس الدمار

30

One night

31

Tomb of prophets

32

Conduct of the wicked.

33

Cleansed his net

تطهير مرماه

Transposition

34

Expiate the offences

كفر الجرائم

Transposition

35

Irregular manner

بطريقة غير نظامية

Transposition

36

Thought of separation

فكر الانفصال

37

Bosom

38

Horsemen

فرسان

39

Immediately

فورا

40

Snatch

41

To act justice

التصرف العدالة

42

prince of justice

أمير العدالة

43

kissed my hand

قبلت يدي

44

Paying no regards

دفع لا يتعلق

45

Distressing event

46

Neither favor from fortune do I gain, nor profit from the work of my hands,

لا صالح من ثروة يمكنني كسب، ولا ربح من عمل يدي

Literal translation

47

To bring forward

لجلب قبل

48

To bring before

لجلب قبل

49

they returned us the contrary

رجعوا لنا العكس

Transposition

50

To eat

لتناول الطعام

51

To drink

ليشرب

52

arrived at his house

وصل في منزله

53

Depart

المغادرة

54

Inheritance

وراثة

55

What we inherited from the ancestors

ما ورثناه من الأجدا

Transposition

56

As soon as

57

To remain in a state of perplexity

على البقاء في حالة من الحيرة

58

overflowing river

النهر يطفح

59

This is a wonderful tale and I present to God a third of my declare to his blood.

هذه هي قصة رائعة. وأقدم الله ثلث تعلن جهدي لدمه

Omission

60

Attired in reach clothing

مكسي في الملابس متناول

61

Consummate liberty

الحرية البارعة

62

Depart

63

came with my jar

جاء مع جرة بلدي

64

Positive duty

واجب إيجابي

65

Marriage is regarded

ويعتبر الزواج

66

To converse

التحدث

67

Behold

لمح

68

Acquitted

برأت

69

Bring back

أعد

Omission

70

Take away

لمح

71

This youth is the most beautiful

هذا الشاب هو أجمل

72

Seeing that this company had girded on the saddles

وترى أن هذه الشركة قد محزم على السروج

Transposition

73

The land of ancestors

أرض الأجداد

74

Yonder path

75

Fear nothing

76

Rely upon him that created you

تعتمد عليه وسلم أن خلقكم

77

The ancestors

أسلاف

78

Woman

يسمح

79

Allowed

مسموح

80

Not allowed

غير مسموح

81

A woman is not allowed

لا يسمح للمرأة

82

Opinion of the most people

رأي معظم الناس

83

Fear nothing

الخوف لا شيء

Addition

84