Anthropology, Sociology and Psychology

Anthropology,Sociology and Psychology

Anthropology

1.Identify the four subfields of anthropology

a)Social-cultural anthropology

b)Biological/physical anthropology

c)Archeology

d)Linguistics

2.Identify the non-biological characteristics that distinguish humanbeings from other animals.

a)Abstract thought

b)The use of complex language

c)Solving of complex problems

3.What are the flaws in Biological race concept?

Thebiological concept of race is a term used to depict subspecies.However, no subspecies exist concerning the modern Homo sapiens. Thedifferences observed occur within the population but not among themand also the variations occur in sharp breaks.

4.Recognize consequences of the Eugenic Movement in early

twentieth-centuryAmerica.

Theeugenics movement reinforced the prejudices based on race in theUnited States of America. It instigated a sense of superiority of thewhites drawing support from scientific data.

5.Recognize common non-reproductive purposes marriage serves

acrossculture

Marriagehas other benefits apart from the usual reproductive advantage. Itraises one`s social status, and it is a form of economic exchange. Itis also a source of labor for the spouses, and the children can worktogether to deliver more than a single individual.

6.Contrast endogamy and exogamy.

Endogamystands for marrying waiting a group that one belongs. An example is amarriage between people of a specific tribe within a country. On theother hand, exogamy stands for marrying outside the group that onebelongs. A good example is a cross-cultural marriage.

7.Identify inherent difficulties in defining culture.

Cultureis blanket encompassing abstract ideas, values and perceptions thatdefine a group’s behavior. Members of a specific group share acommon culture, and they pass the artifacts that define theirbehavior to other members of the society. Culture is rather aninheritance from the society rather than a biological construct. Thedifferent ideas and behaviors function together in an incorporatedaspect.

8.Identify mechanisms of cultural change.

Thecommon mechanisms of cultural change include aspects of diffusion,innovation, loss of culture and acculturation. Innovation refers tothe creation of new things in the society. Diffusion involvesborrowing practices from another group. Cultural loss refers to theabandonment of the practices that define a community in favor ofothers. Acculturation occurs when a group embraces other practices ina wave due to the influence of the dominating group. It usuallyoccurs when powerful societies inhabit the territories of others byusing force.

9.Identify the four primary forms of political organization.

a)Band

b)Chiefdom

c)State

d)Tribe

10.Recognize the discursive relationship between language and

culture.

Thecapacity of human beings to form complex words to become a languageenables culture to thrive. People from different distinctive cultureshave different languages. It is evident that it forms an integralpart of a culture and without the practices cannot be passed from onegeneration to another. Also, people tend to communicate what isimportant to them, and this is the basis of their culture.

11.Compare and contrast patterns of kinship between two specified

cultures.

Theredifferent patterns of kinship exhibited by different communities. Forexample, the Nuer of Sudan lives in a patrilineal community wherebythe kinship regulates all the rights and privileges given to anindividual. In this form of kinship, the father, brother and theirchildren become the closest members of a family. It sharply contrastswith the Hopi community of South America whereby, after marriage theman goes to live with the wives relatives. Both males and femalesconsider the mother’s house as their home.

12.Identify religion, ritual, and ceremony

Aritual refers to a set of actions that take place bearing a symbolicvalue. Ceremonies are actions reserved for social occasions. Religionis a composition of beliefs, traditions and practices that define arelationship between people and a divine being.

13.Recognize the ways in which cultures adapt their behaviors for

subsistence.

Culturesadapt their behaviors for subsistence to take advantage of theaspects of their environment. They exploit the environment eitherthrough agriculture t become farmers, miners or herders. They may usetechnology to exploit resources, and they own the inventions.

14.Define material culture.

Materialculture is the physical occurrence of culture in the physicalartifacts that defines it.

15.Recognize the importance of the &quotmound builders&quot inprehistoric American cultural development.

Theyprovide a basis to study the traditional social and political systemof the Northern American populations. The remains in the molddescribe the form of trade and adaptations the people had for theenvironment. Since archeologists confirm that Americans built them,it clears the air of doubt as to whether the people had significantlevels of civilization.

Sociology

1.Identify examples of a modern social network.

Theyinclude social sites like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram.Newspapers also play an important role in connecting people

2.Compare and contrast the concepts of status and roles.

Thestatus is the position that one occupies in society. A role is aresponsibility given to an individual in society. The status of aperson is a particular setting determines the role that he/she plays.

3.Compare and contrast the concepts of norms and mores.

Normsare the specific cultural expectations of how should behave in agiven situation. On the other hand, mores are the strict instructsthat control moral and ethical behavior. Mores are norms that societyuses to define the right and wrong.

4.Compare and contrast the concepts of laws and beliefs

Lawsare the systems of rules that a given society institute to regulatethe actions of its members. Beliefs are acceptances that statementsand instructs given by society are true. A society must have a strongbelief that the rules regulating them do so for their best interests.

5.Identify the function of group norms.

Groupnorms create a boundary that determines the behavior of individualmembers. They define their language, dressing and relationships witheach other.

6.Define minority.

Theminority is a group of people who have disproportionate effects dueto their numbers or other factors that put them behind those of abigger population.

7.Define prejudice.

Prejudiceis the pre-conceived notion or opinion that one may have towardsanother party that has no basis in actual reason or experience.

8.Define discrimination

Discriminationis the prejudicial treatment of various groups on ground stat asociety deems as disadvantageous like sex, race or gender.

9.Recognize patterns of racial and ethnic organization in social

groups.

Theyinclude genocide, expulsion, slavery, segregation, acculturation,assimilation, pluralism, and amalgamation. Genocide refers todeliberate mass killings and expulsion is the forceful eviction of agroup of another dominant group. Slavery is treating others assobjects, and it is closely related to colonialism that is taking overof another community’s property of residence and putting it underthe rule. Acculturation is learning of culture of a differentcommunity due to influence. Segregation is the separation of twogroups living close to each other and amalgamation is bonding of twocultures, especially through marriage.

10.Identify characteristics of a specified ethnic group.

TheAfrican American population is one of the biggest of ethnic groups.It has various characteristics. They have a dark brown skin color.They have low rates of intermarriages with the native whites. Theyhave their colloquial dialect that is different from that of othergroups. They are normally concentrated in specific areas though theycontinue to assimilate with the native whites.

11.Identify major agents of socialization.

a)The family

b)Education institutions

c)Mass media

12.Identify characteristics of commonly defined social classes in

theUnited States.

Theyinclude the capitalist upper class, the middle and the lower class ofsemi-professionals. The upper class is rich and affluent and alsopowerful politically. They are also highly educated. Themiddle-class consists of the college educated individuals. Theyoccupy the white collar positions. The lowest class has littleeducation. They have little influence in the society. They mostlyoccupy the blue collar occupations.

13.Compare and contrast the functionalist and conflict philosophies

ina sociological study

Conflictphilosophy looks at life a competition. It focuses on thedistribution of power, resources and equality. Functionalistphilosophy, on the other hand, looks at the community as headed forsocial change always. The conflict theory explains the change thanthe functionalist philosophy. However, it does not explain stabilitycomprehensively. Both philosophies incline towards some level ofsocial change.

14.Identify three cultural universals.

a)Family values

b)Cultural view of God

c)Language

15.Identify demographic factors that influence a population’s

health.

a)Age

b)Sex/gender

c)Geographic location

d)Sexual orientation

16.Recognize how social affiliation impacts personal identity.

Socialaffiliations define individuals and it gives them a sense ofbelonging or identity. An individual can identify him/herself with aparticular group and aspire to associate with a particular socialgroup.

17.Recognize how social norms influence gender identification.

Whata society recognizes as normal for each gender gives them anidentity. The social construction of behavior that society hasallocated the roles and responsibilities to men and women. Eachgender identifies itself with these social norms.

Psychology

1.Identify Piaget’s stages of cognitive development.

a)Sensorimotor stage- It starts from birth to around two years.

b)Preoperational stage- It starts from two years to about sevenyears.

c)The concrete operational stage- it starts from seven years to 11years.

d)The formal operational stage- it begins in adolescence up toadulthood.

2.Identify environmental factors that influence human development

Theyinclude

a)Nutrition- it has a direct impact on the physical development ofindividuals. An environment with enough foods is facilitated healthydevelopment.

b)Neighborhood- most of the behaviors that children depict as theygrow up are picked up from the various neighborhoods in which theyreside.

c)Pollution- some pollutants like mercury are known to causeretarded growth in children. The polluted environment may pose thedanger of diseases that would affect growth.

d)Housing- the housing conditions also impacts on the development ofindividuals. Some houses that are not up to the standard for humanhabitation may have detrimental effects on the health of children.For example, cold and leaking houses/.

3.Identify the contributions of specified individuals to the studyof

psychology.

Thepeople who made major contributions include

a)Sigmund Freud- he came up with the theory of child developmentknown as the psychosexual theory.

b)Erik Erikson- he counteracted on the claims of Sigmund Freud anddeveloped the social development theory that explains an individual’sgrowth from neonatal age to old age.

c)John Watson- he contributed to the idea of behaviorism and came upwith findings to support that any behavior can be learned.

d)Albert Bandura- he developed the social learning theory. Heexplained that conditioning and reinforcement can account for thebehaviors that people exhibit.

e)Jean Piaget- his theory of cognitive development is very primaryin studying the mental development in the various stages of life.

4.Identify the basic tenets of specified theories used in psychology

toexplain human behavior.

Thecommonly specified theories are

a)Behaviorism theory- the basic premise of this theory is that allbehavior come to be through conditioning.

b)Cognitive theories- these theories focus on the internal stateswith aspects of motivation, attention, making decisions and problemsolving.

c)Developmental theories- they provide a framework to explain thedevelopment of human beings throughout the different stages of life.

d)Personality theories- they focus on the patterns of personalthoughts and feelings that make individuals unique.

e)Learning theories- they focus on how people acquire new knowledgefrom different sources in their environment.

5.Identify ways in which the brain changes across a person’s

lifespan.

Duringbirth and the following months, the brain lacks the sense of thoughtand logic. Between one and four months, the brain begins toaccommodate and assimilate repeated behaviors. Up to eight months oldthe child cannot perform two tasks simultaneously, and theirconcentration is subject to distractions. From this stage, the braindevelops an aspect of permanency and children begin developing asymbolic thought.

Atthe age o two to seven years, children develop egocentric tendencies.Their brain inclines towards animism. At the age of 7 to 13 years,the brain can make conservations, and the child can differentiatebetween two things that are different. From 13 years up to adulthood,the brain inclines towards abstract reasoning and the individualslook for prove beyond what they can see. They can also make abstractconclusions from different premises.

6.Recognize how prior knowledge influences perception.

Priorknowledge about an issue determines the way people perceive a similarissue in future. Prior knowledge helps individual to have an informedattitude towards an object since they have an idea of itscharacteristics.

7.Recognize effects that prolonged television watching can have on

anadolescent’s observational learning.

Adolescentswith prolonged television watching habits have negative effects ontheir observational learning. They are likely to develop violenttendencies. They are also likely to develop antisocial disorder andaggressiveness than those who do not.

8.Distinguish between desirable and maladaptive avoidance

learning.

Desirableavoidance learning is a beneficial response with the aim ofpreventing a harmful occurrence. Maladaptive avoidance learningresults from fear.

9.Recognize why the use of repressed memory recovery is

controversial.

Accordingto some psychologists, repressed memories may be recovered throughtherapeutic applications. The controversy in this is that somepsychologists believe that the repressed memory does not exist, andit is a creating of both the actual and blended memories. Theybelieve that it is more of a cultural symptom that a reality sincethere is no written proof of it.

10.flashbulb memory and eidetic memory

Flashbulbmemories are vivid, concrete and long lasting memories of personalexperiences on the discovery of shocking events. Eidetic memory, onthe other hand, is the ability of an individual to remember a largenumber of images, sounds, and objects accurately. Eidetic memory ismore accurate than flashbulb memory.

11.Recognize causes of the fight or flight response.

Thefight or flight response is due to various stimuli from theenvironment that are likely to cause harm. The body uses its naturalresponse through releasing hormones that help the body to react fastand escape from the stimuli.

12.Compare and contrast the three given approaches to problem

solving.

a)Algorithms- it is a step by step process that usually give thecorrect results. A good example is a mathematical formula.

b)Heuristics-it is a mental rule f thumb strategy. However, unlikein algorithm, it does not always lead to the correct situation.

c)Trial and error- the approach involves trying a differentalternative before getting the right solution. Unlike algorithm andheuristics is the least informed on the appropriateness of theoptions used.

13.Identify Erik Erickson’s eight stages of psychosocial

development.

a)Trust vs. Mistrust

b)Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

c)Initiative vs. Guilt

d)Industry vs. Inferiority

e)Identity vs. Role Confusion

f)Intimacy vs. Isolation

g)Generativity vs. stagnation

h)Ego integrity vs. despair

14.Recognize how the interaction of psychological and biological

conditionsinfluences health and wellness.

Psychosocialand biological conditions have an intricate relationship.Psychological conditions in the body trigger some biological reactionlike the release of hormones that leads to a particular reaction inthe body. The psychosocial reactions lead to a biological reactionthat can affect the health of an individual.

15.Recognize the importance of the availability and

representativenessHeuristics in decision making.

Availabilityheuristic helps people in making decisions on the basis of easinessof bringing something to mind. On the other hand, representativeheuristics helps individuals to use their mental prototypes tocompare information.