APPROACH TO HEALTHCARE 7
Canceris among the leading killer diseases. It arises from the unusualgrowth of the body cells. Various forms of cancer affect humanbeings. It affects people from across ages, class and gender. Manypeople remain unaware of the disease only to detect it at advancedstages. At the early stages, the symptoms are hardly noticeable. Someof the effects on the body include weak bones and poor development ofblood cells. Some of the internal factors that cause the diseaseinclude inherited genetic mutations, hormone imbalances, and immunedisorder. Cancer generates physiological and psychological effects onthe affected individuals. It should that the disease is avoidable andtreatable if detected early.
Diagnosisof the disease starts with regular screening. Physiological andpsychological effects can be avoided through appropriate awarenessprograms. It is recommended that individuals undergo regularscreening to ascertain their health status regarding the disease.Physical exercises, proper diet and lifestyle are some of the basictreatment plans. Cancer care services should include counselingdiagnosed cancer patients, providing emotional support, counsel andassistance with palliative care. Addressing the psychosocial needs ofthe cancer patients will require social support and appropriateclinical procedures.
Diagnosisand Staging of Cancer
Treatmentfor cancer is lengthy where the practitioners need to understand thehealth history of the patient (Elliss-Brookes, et al., 2012). Thedisease is largely recognized through proper screening of the body.Screening involves activities such as blood tests, X-ray, andendoscopy, among others. Diagnosing and treating cancer earlyimproves the chances of curing the disease. Some forms of cancer suchas breast and prostate cancer can be detected early enough throughthe normal self-examination or screening. Others are detected whenthe body has already developed tumor or when symptoms appear. Inother cases, cancer is detected when an individual is undergoinganother form of clinical treatment. Diagnosis through physicalexamination involves checking the abnormalities in things such asurine and blood. These lab tests are used to indicate whether anyindividual has developed signs of cancer. When a tumor is detected,the practitioners use imaging tests such as X-rays, computedtomography, and endoscopy examinations to ascertain the location ofcancer in the body. A biopsy is done by taking a tissue sample fromthe body after which the cancer cells are examined. After thedetection of cancer, other tests are conducted in the body to get thespecific information about the disease. A process called staging,where the practitioners examine whether the disease has spread toother parts in the body, follows this. When signs persist even afternegative results from initial diagnosis, it is advisable that moretests are conducted. After the biopsy, the patient undergoes the fullcancer treatment procedures (Elliss-Brookes, et al., 2012).
Psychologicaland Physiological Effects of Cancer
Peoplewith the disease undergo psychological and physiological distress.This form of distress arises when an individual is trying to copewith the diagnosis. Others are worried about the recurrence of thedisease. Ideally, cancer experience is a difficult one to handle forthe patients. Cancer is known to affect the development of the bodyamong the young people hence they are exposed to increased healthrisks. It also results to the inability in maintaining a productive,active and healthy life. This causes emotional stress on thepatients. The range of emotions likely to develop includes shock,fear, depression, and sadness, among others. Sometimes, the affectedindividuals contemplate committing suicide to get over the cancerexperience. It is said that the decrease in the medullar cells andincreased fat cells in the body has harmful impacts on thedevelopment of strong body cells. Cancer generates variouscomplications to the body. Cancer and cancer treatment cause pain tothe body. Surgery in certain treatments causes pain as well. Apatient is also likely to experience fatigue and nausea. Othercomplications include breathing difficulties, weight loss, andchemical changes in the body. When undergoing treatment, anindividual is likely to experience changes in the body due to theexposure to X-rays and chemicals from the prescribed drugs.Chemotherapy drugs, for instance, are powerful with resultantnegative effects in the body. Radiation can damage body cells hencejeopardizing the health status of an individual. Due to emotionalstress, the patient is unable to attend to the normal eatingbehaviors hence unable to get the right diet for the body. The riskand pain on the patient can be examined through appropriate screeningprocedures (Fleishman, 2012).
Recommendationsto Address Physiological and Psychological Effects
Addressingthe physiological and psychological effects arising from cancer willrequire state and non-state actors to generate intense awarenessinitiatives. Such programs will be instrumental in informing thepublic about the disease. Empowerment through the provision ofappropriate health information will reduce the physiological andpsychological effects. It is advised that one undergoes psychologicaland physiological care to mitigate the negative effects. This helpsan individual to feel more relaxed and enjoy life (Carr & Steel,2013). As such, the patient can cope better with the cancertreatment. Counseling is also important for the patient as part oftreatment. Stress management interventions aids in reducingdepression that is likely to worsen the situation of the patient.Health care providers and policy makers need to generate guidelinesthat will address the psychosocial needs of the patients. Provisionof quality services and counseling will be instrumental in tacklingthe challenges faced by the patients. Appropriate interactionsthrough sharing of health information between patients and healthprofessionals are recommended to improve awareness about the disease.Moreover, it would be appropriate to have a patient-centered therapyas it will help in understanding the needs of the patient as well ascheck the progress and response to clinical treatment. Awarenessinitiatives can also be created through a persuasive process in themedia and other platforms. Online platforms such as website andsocial media can also help in disseminating information about thedisease. Behavior and attitude change is also appropriate to reducethe psychological and physiological effects. Awareness programs canhelp in changing people’s attitude towards the disease. This willalso help in offering psychosocial support to the affectedindividuals. It is notable socially supportive environment caninfluence good behaviors as well as offer the appropriate messagesregarding the disease. Further, awareness programs boost anindividual’s self-esteem and comfort. Emotional support andguidance to the patients is essential for cancer patients (Fleishman,2012).
Properunderstanding of the common challenges related to cancer will help indeveloping better strategies for mitigating the effects. Theauthorities also need to establish cancer registration and counselingcenters to know its prevalence as well as help in the development ofhealthcare strategies. The policies developed need to be coordinatedand focused on improving the healthcare outcomes for patients withcancer. Ultimately, the aim is to generate an actionable plan tominimize psychological and physiological effects. Individualsirrespective of their health status need to remain active in seekinghealthcare information (Carr & Steel, 2013). By identifying therisks, it is possible for the population to free themselves from thepreventable forms of cancer. The formulation of safety standards andquality services will significantly reduce the effects arising fromcancer treatment. Doing so, the patients will improve their chancesof battling the cancerous situation.
Canceris a deadly disease that requires appropriate intervention. While thedisease is treatable, cancer remains a leading killer disease in theworld. Individuals who suffer from cancer encounter variouschallenges, including psychological and clinical problems. Some arisefrom the treatment procedures. It is advisable that the authoritiescontinue creating awareness about the disease. With early detection,it is possible to put the right intervention measures such astreatment. Regular screening and adoption of healthy behaviors is thefirst step to ensuring that an individual is aware of his or herhealth status about cancer. State and non-state actors around theworld have tried to generate initiatives that will improve care forcancer patients. Psychological and social effects of cancer can beaddressed by the adoption of appropriate health strategies.Psychosocial needs of the patients have not been met due to poorhealth information about the disease. Support from counselors andsocial workers will be required to address the psychosocial needs.This will help improve the quality of healthcare services of cancer.
Carr,B. I., & Steel, J. (2013). Psychologicalaspects of cancer: A guide to emotional and psychologicalconsequences of cancer, their causes and their management.New York: Springer.
Elliss-Brookes,L., McPhail, S., Ives, A., Greenslade, M., Shelton, J., Hiom, S., etal. (2012). Routes to diagnosis for cancer – determining thepatient journey using multiple routine data sets. BritishJournal of Cancer, 1220–1226.
Fleishman,S. B. (2012). Manualof cancer treatment recovery: What the practitioner needs to know anddo.New York: Demos Medical Pub.