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Itis impossible to see the values and beliefs of an organizationdirectly. are essential in deciphering the culture of anyorganization. The four categories of artifacts are rituals andceremonies, language, organizational stories and legends as well asstructures and symbols.

Organizationalstories and legends communicate cultural values. The stories andlegends refer to the tales of past milestone events in theorganizations. The stories are usually true. Legends outline what todo and what not to do for the staff[ CITATION McS13 l 1033 ].Legends offer great help to the employees. They learn how to avoidmistakes, how to get promoted as well as how to tackle crises.

Ceremoniesare activities conducted for the benefit of the audience. Activitiesmay include celebrating a newly won contract as well as punishing andrewarding employees. Rituals are less formal than ceremonies. Ritualsand ceremonies present an opportunity for the communication of anorganization’s core values[ CITATION McS13 l 1033 ].

Ontop of speaking volumes about the culture of a company, languagesheds light on the values held by the organizational subcultures.Organization leaders make use of metaphors and some other specialvocabularies which represent the corporate culture[ CITATION McS13 l 1033 ].

Physicalstructures symbolize the beliefs and values of a company. The desighnand structure of a building can suggest the emphasis on teamwork,flexibility together with other values. Even when a building fails toattract attention, the items inside such a building can convey acultural meaning[ CITATION McS13 l 1033 ].


McShane, S. L., &amp Von Gilnow, M. A. (2013). Organizational Behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.