1.Considering the distribution of B.T joint dysfunction and her age,what is the most likely cause of this dysfunction? What additionalhistory or physical assessment data would support this diagnosis?

Jointspain and stiffness is a common occurrence for everyone, especiallyonce one attains the age of forty and above. Women are more likely tobe affected by pain in the joints compared to men. There are factorsin women that make them more susceptible to pain than men. Theseinclude the experiences of hormone disparities and fluctuations. Theymake women be less physiologically equipped in dealing with pain andincrease their vulnerability to joint pains and stiffness. Thepossible illness with BT is arthritis further diagnosis shall berequired to identify the specific kind of arthritis. The reason forarthritis is that it affects the majority of women above forty yearsold and affects women over three times compared to their malecounterparts. During diagnosis, an additional assessment shall beconducted to support the diagnosis. This includes obtaininginformation about when the symptoms began, how severe they are interms of pain and disability. Further information about the patient`srelationship shall be collected such as whether BT has family memberswith a history of arthritis, the medication that BT is currentlytaking, her exercise and lifestyle habits, whether she hasexperienced further symptoms such as weight or appetite loss,problems with sleep, fever, checking for rashes, weaknesses in themuscle and the general sick feeling (Jackson, 2009).

Oncethe history is recorded, a physical examination is necessary to becarried on BT. First it is to establish the specific source of painwhether the pain is from within, or outside the joint or whether ithas been referred to the joint from another part of the body such asthe hip pains that are believed to be sent from the back. A furtherevaluation shall be conducted on the area of pain such as the knees,hands wrists and shoulders. The stiffness in her fingers shall beevaluated too. The aim shall be to identify signs of inflammationsuch as redness, tenderness, the warmth that is above the normal bodytemperature, persistent stiffness, deformity or enlargement,tenderness and swelling (Jackson, 2009)..

Furtherassessment to identify the painful joints and how many of them, jointstability and whether she can be able to move for a short distanceincluding her ability to get in and out of a chair shall be carriedout (Jackson, 2009).

2.What laboratory tests would be helpful in confirming this diagnosis?

First,the most appropriate tests shall be those of blood such as theErythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), the Rheumatoid Factor Test (RF)and the Anti-Nuclear And Antibodies test (ANA) in order to be ableto point at the specific joint disease. Others shall include those ofurine and fluids that shall be extracted from the affected joints.Imaging tests shall be conducted too to view the joint damage viaX-Rays and the Computed Tomography scan (CT). Others shall includethe Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and the ultrasound arthroscopy(Jackson, 2009).

3.Elaborate on treatment, stating why each is necessary and therationale for prescribing the low-dose steroid therapy prednisolone.

Regardlessof the type of arthritis, there is a whole range of medications thatare meant to relieve pain and protect the joints from additionaldamage. Medications such as no steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs(NSAIDS) are meant to interfere with prostaglandins that are pain andfever causing chemicals in the body. Other painkillers includeibuprofen, Motrin, naproxen and Aspirins (Jackson, 2009).

Prednisoneis used to treat arthritis conditions. It can also treat blooddisorders and breathing problems. The reason it was prescribed is dueto its ability to decrease the reaction of the patient’s immunesystem to diseases. This is a strategy to reduce or prevent suchsymptoms as swelling and other allergic reactions (Jackson, 2009).


Jackson,S. (2009). Prescribingfor elderly patients.Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.