Greenmarketing refers to a marketing strategy that is aimed at creating apresumption that a product is environmentally preferable relative tothe competitors. Green marketing is also known as eco orenvironmental marketing. In addition to informing the potentialconsumers on how the product is environmentally friendly, greenmarketing may involve sustainable, biodegradable or recyclablepackaging material, modification of the production process or theproduct. Although there are legal regulations against misleadingmarketing claims, there are evidences of misleading greenadvertisements. Due to the increased need for environmentconservation and campaigns from environment advocate groups,consumers prefer products that are perceived to be environmentallyfriendly. This has created a wave of green marketing through variousadvertisement channels (Ottman, 2014).

Environmentalor green products

Thereare several ways through which a product can be called green orenvironmental product. This includes

  • Targeting where a producer designs a green brand that target a particular market niche by mentioning green features in the advertisement.

  • Green design where a company changes raw materials or design or adopt an eco-friendly production process.

  • Green positioning where a company highlights some of the aspects of the product that are environment friendly.

  • Marketing waste where the company increases its efficiency to reduce waste and recycle.

  • Green promotion where a company counters bad perception due to negative environmental impacts by highlighting its environmental friendly initiatives.

  • Green alliance where a company enters into strategic alliance with environment conservation and activist groups.


Greenwashing is public relation activity that is aimed at making a companyand its product to look more environmentally friendly. Often, greenwashing is unsubstantiated and based on misleading information aboutthe benefits of the product or service to the environment. Theactivity makes the company look environmentally conscious tounsuspecting targeted clients. Mainly, green washing is used as amarketing tool by depicting the company and its products as moreenvironmentally friendly. Green washing is unethical because thecompany is likely to spend more in the activity compared to theamount of money spent on environmentally friendly activities (Bowen,2014).

Examplesof genuine environmental claim

Althougha good number of green marketing can be termed as green washing,there are some products that are genuinely environmentally friendly.However, it is difficult for an ordinary customer to differentiatebetween genuine and misleading green advertising. Some of the genuineenvironment includes,

  • The hybrid Toyota Prius car concept which has low emission, fuel efficient and eco friendly technology.

  • The nontoxic and biodegradable cleaning products marketed by Method.

  • Tesco environment sustainability program.

Examplesof green washing attempts in ads

  • The changes in colors in the logo of McDonald to yellow and green from the previous yellow and red. This was done in 2009 with an aim of creating the perception that the company is environmentally responsible. However, this was not supported by changes in operation to reflect environmental sustainability.

  • During the 2008 presidential election, the famous “clean coal” initiative was considered by many environmentalist and activists as a green wash. Although it was political, it was a ‘marketing strategy’ used by politician to market their candidates.

  • The “go green” campaign by Wal-Mart is also a green wash. According to some environment activist groups, the campaign has benefited the Wal-Mart than the environment. They have highlighted several environmentally unsustainable activities by Wal-Mart to proof their case.


Bowen.F. (2014). AfterGreen washing: Symbolic Corporate Environmentalism and Society,Cambridge University Press.

Dobin,D. (2009). &quotGreenwashing harms entire movement&quot. LodgingHospitality65 (14): 42.

Ottman,J. (2014). Thenew rules of green marketing: strategies, tools, and inspiration forsustainable branding.San Francisco, Calif.: Berrett-Koehler.

Winston,W. (2013). EnvironmentalMarketing: Strategies, Practice, Theory, and Research,New York, NY: Routledge.




Hypertensionrefers to a chronic condition in which the blood pressure is elevatedabove the normal levels, exerting pressure on the circulation system.It is one of the most common cardiovascular diseases. Normal bloodpressure range between 100/60 to 140/90mmHg. A blood pressure above140/90mmHg is an indication of hypertension. Although age is animportant factor, all individuals have risks of hypertension.Individuals who are at high risk, for example, overweight or pregnantmothers should be screened regularly.


Cholesterolrefers to lipids that play an important role in the normalfunctioning of the body. Although they are very essential in thebody, abnormal levels of cholesterol in the body increase healthrisks. When cholesterol combines with proteins in the body, it formslow density and high density lipoproteins. The recommended borderlinelevel of blood cholesterol is 200 to 239mg/dL.


Breastcancer is one of the major health concern affecting women in themodern world. The best tool against cancer, especially breast canceris early detection. Breast cancer starts as a breast lump or amammogram in the breast. At early stages, breast cancer is easy tomanage and in some cases curable. Although there are other factorsthat affects breast cancer, age is a major factor. The risk increaseswith age. Therefore, women who are post-menopause, especially abovethe age of 50 years, should undergo breast screening at least onceevery three years. However, all women are advised to undergo regularbreast cancer screening.


Testiclecancer is a rare type of cancer that affects men between the ages of15 and 49 years. It accounts for less that one percent of cancersaffecting men. However, since it can affect men of all ages, selfexamination, at least monthly is advised for all men.


Colonand rectal cancer, commonly known as colorectal cancer is among themost common cancers. Screening is recommended for individuals betweenthe ages of 50 and 75 years due to the increased risk with age. Themain recommended screening tests includes stool test, sigmoidoscopyand colonoscopy.





Palan,R. (2013). GlobalPolitical Economy: Contemporary Theories,New York, NY. Routledge.

Searchstrategy:Books were search from online databases, Goggle books and printedlibraries. The most appropriate book was selected based onavailability and the content. The book that was easily available andrisk in content was selected.

Sourcedescription: Politicaleconomy in the modern world, when viewed from a global perspective isa relatively wide topic. This is due to the massive number oftheories and thoughts in political economy. In the first part of thebook, the author focuses on the central features of political economyat the global level. The second part looks at some of the selectedtheories and thoughts in political economy. The third part focuses onemerging trend in the modern political economy.

Sourceevaluation: Thebook contained credible and verifiable information and is written byan expert in political economy.


Caporaso,J. A. &amp Levine, D. P. (1992).Theoriesof political economy,Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Searchstrategy:Books were search from online databases, Goggle books and printedlibraries. The most appropriate book was selected based onavailability and the content. The book that was easily available andrisk in content was selected.

Sourcedescription:Political economy is not a new idea or new term. It has existed amongscholars for over three centuries. As a result, there are severalpolitical economy theories that have developed over the years. Thisbook looks at different political economy theories that havedeveloped over the years. This includes “classical, Marxian,Keynesian, neoclassical, state-centered, power-centered, andjustice-centered theories of political economy”. The book looks atthe similarities as well as difference between the differentpolitical economic theories.

Sourceevaluation: Thebook is writer by a credible author and published by a reputablepublisher. The information contained in the book can also be verifiedusing information from other sources.


Milner,H. V. (1999). The political economy of international trade, AnnualReview of Political Science 2, p 91-114,

Searchstrategy:The source was selected from the huge scholarly articles data base.The online data base was used to ease the process of selecting themost appropriate article. The article was then scanned through todetermine its suitability in the study. The article can easily befound in online databases.


Thesource is a journal article that looks at the changes in thepolitical economy in the last three decades and how it has impactedin the global economy. One of the most important developments in themodern political economy has been the movement towards a freeeconomy. The article explains the factors that have necessitatedthese changes as well as their impacts on international trade.

Sourceevaluation: The article is a peer reviewed journal article. It comes from areputable journal, Annual Review of Political Science. Peer reviewedjournals are well researched, written by vetted researchers and aremore preferable scholarly sources. This is because they meet theminimum threshold of a credible source in academic work. Peer reviewmeans that the article is reviewed and evaluated by other scholars inthe field of study before it is published. The information containedin the article is based on recent research findings and scholarlythoughts. The article bases its argument on past and current theoriesas well as research findings to argue the case.


Caporaso,J. A. &amp Levine, D. P. (1992).Theoriesof political economy,Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Milner,H. V. (1999). “The political economy of international trade”,AnnualReview of Political Science 2,p 91-114,

Palan,R. (2013). GlobalPolitical Economy: Contemporary Theories,New York, NY. Routledge.