DIFFERENCES IN CRIME 6
Differencesbetween Criminalists and Criminology
Criminalisticsis a discipline that runs on the platform of a forensic science. Itis a discipline that deals with the collection, recognition,individualization, identification and interpretation of physicalsscience and the application of natural sciences to law matters(Buckles,2006). Inthis process scientific methods are applied in gathering andanalyzing physical proof in criminal cases. In this light acriminalist is a person with a background in criminalistic.Criminalists apply scientific techniques and methods to scrutinizeand explore evidentiary items and give his/her findings in a court(Quonetal.2001).Such individual receive additional training from their employer(private entity or government).
Criminologyis a term that is used to define the scientific study of crime,criminal conduct and law enforcement. Individuals in this field studycrime and how the society reacts to it, and also encompasses themanner and ways in which crimes can be prevented (Quonetal.2001).In this vein, the discipline explores the hereditary, psychologicaland environmental factors that propel individuals to commit crime. Italso covers the methods and techniques of investigating crime andmodes of conviction, the efficacy of penalties leveled on criminalsand effectiveness of correction methods vis-a-vis to other methods ofrehabilitation (Quonetal.2001).One of the most commonly used definitions of criminology defines itas the “study of the making of laws, the breaking of laws, and thereactions to breaking of laws’ (Buckles,2006).
Oneof the simplest ways to differentiate criminologists and criminalistsis to closely inspect the various elements of crime. Normally, crimeand criminal inspection entails both social/behavioral examinationand physical proof (Quonetal.2001). Criminalists center their attention on the physical evidence, anduse forensic science to scrutinize and link physical proof on thescene of the crime to the probable offender. Criminalists identifyand examine physical samples and conduct laboratory test usingscientific apparatus. Such individual have an opportunity tospecialize in a given subject such as DNA identification (Buckles,2006).On the other hand criminologists search for soft elements of thecriminal field. The scrutinize pattern of conduct in offenders. Suchindividuals explore crime and analyze criminal behavior in a bid tooffer a sound explanation as to who committed a given crime and thereason they did it (Quonetal.2001).Criminologists may work in private entities such as security firmsand universities (work independently) or in public law enforcementdepartment.
Criminalistsin Public and Private Sector
Asa criminalists working in the public sector, I would opt for acriminal justice career, and work in a forensic laboratory to solvecrime questions in the justice department. In the private sector, Iwould opt to become a forensic scientist for firm that engages inprivate investigation. In this capacity I would help attorneysunravel various aspects of crime scene evidence.
Asa criminologist in the private sector, I would want to work as afraud investigator. I would evaluate, and interpret various data bothin print and electronic storage to investigate fraud. In the publicsector, I would opt to work in the department of victim outreach.
White-collarCrimes and Blue-Collar Crime
Thereare many different types of crimes but criminal activities arebroadly categorized into two main groups, white-collar crimes andblue-collar crimes. White-collarcrimes take on a variety of forms and cover a wide range of subjectmatter (Croall,2001).This is a term white collar is used to denote the professionals andindividuals working in high administrative tasks. They are mainlyskilled workers who perform tasks that require specific skills,expertise and creativity (Croall,2001).In this vein, white-collar crime is used to describe offencescommitted in such setting by such professionals. In encompassesparticular non-violent crimes such as embezzlement, identity theft,fraud and insider trading. This type of crime is differentiated fromblue collar crime in two crucial ways. At the outset, the casesinvolving white collar crime are more difficult to prosecute (Croall,2001).Proving theft, fraud and insider trading is not a simple task becauseof the technical problems that surrounds such crimes. For example,providing adequate proof that someone used fraudulent informationdoes not necessary translate to the fact that, such an individualtook information and used it intentionally to commit an offense. Inthis light the clearance rate of white collar crime is normally down(Croall, 2001).
Whitecollar crimes are normally way too complex than blue collar crimes. Awhite collar offense may encompass setting up a network of shellfirms manufacturing fake invoices that the executor approves as anagent of the employer while a blue collar offense may entail grabbinga used computer or breaking a car window and running away (Croall,2001). Identifying a white collar offense is muchmore difficult because they are normally committed by sophisticatedoffenders who are likely to erase the entire trail.
Bluecrimes are crimes that are more violent, more physical and thatentail use of force or performing of manual labor. Excellent examplesof blue-collar crime include battery, drug crimes, assault, robbery,sex crimes and theft. Blue collar is a term that applies to tasks andpositions that require manual labor (Buckles,2006).It is also used to describe tasks that require low skills and lowremuneration. Offenders are easy to identify and hence have highclearance rate. Penalties and fines for blue collar job are usuallyhigher than other crimes (Buckles,2006).
UniformCrime Reporting: FBI
TheUnited States Department of Justice employs two programs to measurethe nature, magnitude and effects of crime in the country. The twoprograms the national crime victimization and uniform crimereporting, use different technique, and focus to report of differentaspects of crime (Buckles,2006).The FBI categories violent offense as blue collar crime whileproperty crime as white-collar crime. TheUniform crime reporting program gathers information on crimes such asmurder, assault, grand teft auto, arson, robbery and larcery-theft.FBI catagroizesnonviolent offences such as concealment, deciet, and trust violationwhich do not require use of force or physical coercition as whitecollar crime (Buckles,2006).
Barnett,C. (). TheMeasurement ofWhite-Collar Crime Using Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR)Data. U.S. Department of Justice.Retrieved from:https://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/about-us/cjis/ucr/nibrs/nibrs_wcc.pdf
Buckles,T. (2006). CrimeScene Investigation, Criminalistics and The Law.New York. Cengage Learning
Croall,H. (2001). Understandingwhite collar crime.Buckingham [u.a.: Open Univ. Press.
Quon,K., Rajeswaran,P., Parker,B.,& Amir, M. (2001). Role ofCriminalistics in White-Collar Crimes, The 62 J. Crim. L. Criminology& Police Sci.437 (2001).