TheName of the Class


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TheCity and State where it is located


Task1: What are some of the main challenges in defending the idea ofhuman rights?

Defendinghuman rights is surrounded by various challenges that affect therealization of positive outcomes. The challenges are either local orglobal depending on the socio-economic environment. One of thechallenges is political where the established institutions andpolicies within a given area either jeopardize or enhance defendingof human rights (Holmgaard,2014, p. 62).Nations that have strong political instruments such as constitutionand institutions provide an enviable ground to enhance theachievement of human rights. Nonetheless, dictatorial regimesjeopardize human rights where the citizens do not uphold the basichuman rights such as right to health and property. Such countrieshave weak institutions and policies to safeguard human rights.Second, religious beliefs affect human rights. In Muslim region, forinstance, women do not enjoy similar privileges as men. Anothercritical matter is the socio-economic challenges where certainsocieties are economically endowed compared to others. To enhance therealization positive outcomes in defending for human rights, financesare required. Moreover, some societies have weak judicialinstitutions that cannot support the defenders of human rights(Ishay, 2004, p. 26).

Defendinghuman rights requires the collaboration by both state and non-stateactors. Without the input of all stakeholders, the defenders areunlikely to create awareness on important matters that supports humanrights. Legal provisions should spell out the cultural, economic,political and social approach ties with other countries. Moreover,cultural and traditional values affect defending of human rights.Ordinarily, traditional norms are established on values that do notadhere to the interests and needs of the contemporary society.Traditional values, for instance, portray women as second-classcitizens. Creating the bridge between traditional values andcontemporary needs is sometimes difficult (Goodhart,2013, p. 348).

Listof References

Goodhart,M. E. (2013). Human rights: politics and practice. Oxford [etc.],Oxford University Press.

HolmgaardNielsen, G. (2014). Walking a Tightrope defending human rights inChina. Kopenhagen, NIAS Press.

Ishay,M. (2004). The history of human rights: From ancient times to theglobalization era. Los Angeles, California: University CaliforniaPress.

Task2: If human rights are universal, why do we have a special topic todiscuss women’s human rights?

Whilehuman rights are regarded as universal, there exist special toolsthat highlight human rights among women. It is for this reason thatone observes that human rights are advocated equally to all. Thereare no agreed standards on how to achieve the equality standards.There are numerous groups that are liberal in nature, which areconcerned with human rights groups, civil society, internationalpolitical economy, development in the social space, among others.Women discrimination narrows the potential range of policy responses,undermines the capacity of the society to respond autonomously to thedemands of their citizenry. It is thus imperative to provide forequal privileges for under-privileged individuals (Landman, 2006, p.67).

Womenconstitute large portion of the world’s population but are oftendiscriminated against by the policies and institutions in mostsocieties. To feminists the learned knowledge and the way of thinkingarticulate the problems of a man, leaving women out of any discussionabout knowledge. Tohidi (2002) observes that sociology by itself wasbased on and constructed around the man’s social world. Based onthese affirmations, it was important to create a special topic onhuman rights that specifically championed for the rights of women.The use of feminist viewpoint involves the use of contemporarytechniques in addressing the plight of humankind, especially thewomen. Through such an outlook, the feminists are able to considerthe social world and mold approaches that can transform the perceivedworld views, towards attaining a better society. While championingfor the rights of women, the society should not forget the rights ofmen as well as other marginalized groups (Donnelly,2003, p. 16).

Listof References

Donnelly,J. 2003. Universal human rights in theory and practice (2nd ed.).Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Landman,T. 2006. StudyingHuman Rights.Oxford and London: Routledge

Tohidi,N. 2002. The global-local intersection of feminism in Muslimsocieties: The cases of Iran and Azerbaijan. SocialResearch,69(3), 851-887.

Task3: What is the relationship between human rights and protecting thenatural environment?

Theworld continues to experience socio-economic challenges arising fromdegradation of the natural resources. Unfortunately, the minority andunder-privileged individuals are the most affected hence carry thedisproportionate encumber of this abuse. Degradation of theenvironment denies human beings a chance to enjoy some of their humanrights such as right to property, health and culture, among others.Contamination to the natural resources through pollution affects theright to health as it exposes human beings to diseases. Intrusioninto indigenous land compromises the right to culture. Such actionsincrease human suffering which is against the established humanrights (Beitz,2009, p. 46).As such, protection of the natural resources has positive effects onthe quality of life. It also helps in enhances the enjoyment of humanrights. This shows a great relationship between human rights andprotection of the environment (Picolotti&amp Taillant, 2010, p. 12).Apparently, environmentalists tend to forget human impacts arisingfrom environmental abuse where they largely concentrate on naturalresources preservation. It is imperative that both state andnon-state actors consider the human impacts when consideringstrategies on natural resources preservation. On most cases, humanbeings are largely unprotected by the established legislations henceminimal address on the human rights abuses.

Thematter introduces significant issues that relate human rights andenvironment advocacy. Several treaties such as Kyoto Protocol havebeen introduced to generate a healthy environment that considers theestablished human rights. Issues such as water rights and womenrights offer great explanations that show how environmentalprotection can be attained through the established human rightsinstruments. Addressing the two matters concurrently will generate anenviable and healthy environment for all (Freeman, 2002, p. 83).

Listof References

Beitz,Charles R. (2009). Theidea of human rights.Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Freeman,Michael (2002). Human rights: an interdisciplinary approach.Cambridge: Polity Press

Picolotti,R., &amp Taillant, J. D. (2010). Linkinghuman rights and the environment.Tucson, Ariz, University of Arizona Press.