Kindof Memory and Difference in Learning in Individuals

Memoryin the context of psychology refers to the process through whichinformation is received, stored and retrieved from the human brain.Receiving information involves a special process called encoding thatinvolves putting the information in the correct format for storage.Information stored can be retrieved for use in decision making or anyother purpose for which it was intended to perform.

Oneof the learning contexts of interest I will talk about is studyingfor the exam. To assess the extent of progress of one’s academiclevel, exams are administered to test what a student can rememberfrom the memory. Often, as students, we prepare for the exam byrevising for that exam and to some extend cramming so that it iseasier to remember what was taught. However, many a times, studentsforget what they were taught during the exam learning program. Thatis a big challenge, and it shows some weakness on the student’sparts since we wait until the exams are around the corner that’swhen we start to read (Ormrod, &amp Davis, 2004).

Allinformation encoded into our brain is stored for use in the future.Some of this information is likely to be used within a short periodwhile another type of information may take ages before it is used.Some information may even never be used in our lifetime once it isencoded in our brains. Therefore, the human brain has a differentorganization of memory, and it is apparently determined by theexpected duration of the information stored (Hollingshead, 2010).

Thereare two types of memory used to store information. The first type ofmemory is called the short-term memory or rather the learning memory.This is the kind of memory that store temporary information foreither immediate use or information awaiting transfer to the othermemory (long-term memory). This memory can be compared to the randomaccess memory (RAM) in a computer. The long-term memory is the othertype of memory in humans. This is the brain memory system thatencodes, sore and also retrieves information. Implicit, explicit andautobiography memory are some of the types of long-term memory(Gordon, 2007).

Memoryfaces a big problem in term of forgetting. For instance, the humanbrain can store data equivalent of hundreds of supercomputers butwhat is astonishing is the fact that we can rarely remember even 1%of that information. Human memory does not hold information for along time and continue to store fresh information daily, hence,easily forgetful. Activating the schemata requires a clue to theinformation so that a rough idea of what had transpired can be drawnI the mind of an individual (Chun, &amp Jiang, 2008).

Peopleunderstand and remember things differently. A case study involvedreading the same passage for two different students twice. Thepassage could be a story or a newspaper extract. After reading thepassage, the two students are asked to write down on paper what theyheard and could remember. The two students wrote a different accountof what was in the passage. Moreover, the sequence of events, as readin the passage, was different from what the student had written. Thestudents also had a different narrative from each other. Memory andlearning process is affected by many factors including intelligence,social background, and age. Young people are not occupied by so muchin their mind and remember quite easily. Ladies are said to rememberas well as is said of intelligent people.

Iwould use the knowledge I have gained in my professional conduct inthe future. This is because I will have a broader understanding aboutthe difference in learning capabilities from one individual to theother. The basic idea is to make appropriate decision on how to treatand associate with other based on their capabilities. I would alsolearn to appreciate others in their context because they are not inthe same mental capability that me. In my personal life, I would moreor less say that the knowledge will come in handy in cementinghealthy social relationship. This is in addition to appreciatingpeople’s memory capabilities and knowledge.


Chun,M. M., &amp Jiang, Y. (2008). Contextual cueing: Implicit learningand memory of visual context guides spatial attention. Cognitivepsychology,36(1),28-71.

Gordon,B. (2007). Preserved learning of novel information in amnesia:Evidence for multiple memory systems. Brainand cognition,7(3),257-282.

Hollingshead,A. B. (2010). Communication, learning, and retrieval in transactivememory systems. Journalof experimental social psychology,34(5),423-442.

Ormrod,J. E., &amp Davis, K. M. (2004). Humanlearning.Merrill.