# Information Technology Management

InformationTechnology Management

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InformationTechnology Management

Question1

1. Using the precedence diagramming method (PDM), the resulting diagram for the program appears as below.

1. After calculating for the earliest start time (ES), earliest finish (EF), latest start (LS), latest finish (LF), and slack for each activity, the resulting table appears as shown below.

 A B C D E F G H I ES 0 2 7 7 10 10 22 24 30 EF 2 7 10 22 18 20 24 30 35 LS 0 2 11 7 16 14 22 24 30 LF 2 7 14 22 24 24 24 30 35 Slack 0 0 4 0 6 4 0 0 0
2. From the diagram in (b.) above, the longest path with no slack i.e. the critical path is given by ABDGHI

3. The initial project had a time schedule of 30 days. It is possible to complete the project in 18 days considering the structure of the critical tasks in the project. In order to cut down the number of days by 12 as required, the critical tasks of the project will have to be adjusted in such that they account for more than 6 days of the required 12 by making more tasks critical. Given that the entire project has 16 days of slack in non-critical tasks, these alone can serve as adequate resource required to achieve the required tasks in even much lesser time than required. Additionally, outsourcing of project work, reducing the scope (and therefore the cost) of the project , scheduling overtime, increasing productivity and reducing time allocated to discretionary activities also come in handy in cutting the number of days to 18 or less.

Question2

1. The current project intends to use only 1/10 of the other project’s capacity. Given that the productivity range for the other game ranged from 5 to 20 lines of production, the activity range of this game will reduce proportionately 10 times this initial range to give a range from 0.5 to 2.0 lines of code every day.

Inorder to obtain the number of days that this project will take, theunavailable days in the whole year will have to be accounted forimplying:

ProjectDuration= (52 weeks x 5 days) – (10 + 10 + 15 + 5) = 220days.

Consequently,the estimated range in LOC of the project size is obtained asfollows.

Estimatedrange in LOC = [(0.5 x 220), (2.0 x 220)]

Therefore:

Theestimated range in LOC is 110 to 550 per programmer

Theestimated range of the project’s effort will be from E1 to E2:Where:

E1=3.13 x (0.11^1.072) = 0.2937person month.E2=3.13 x (0.55^1.072) = 1.6489person month.Therefore,the range of the project’s effort will be from 0.2937 to 1.6489person month i.e.range of product effort per person = [0.2937to 1.6489]

1. Similarly, the estimated project duration in calendar months will range from C1 to C2.

Where:C1 = 2.5 x (0.297^0.35) =1.6281 calendar months

C2= 2.5 x (1.6489^0.35) = 2.9782 calendar months

Therefore,estimated duration will range from 1.6281 to 2.9782 calendar months

Question3

1. Brooks believes that adding work force to late software makes it later. Essentially, he argues that when a project is already late, adding more workers to it only serves to delay and worsen the project. Further, he proposed two mechanisms through which this happens:

1. Brooks observes that there will be a ramp time for the workers involved in the project. The new workers will not only require time to adapt to the project but also to be educated on the effort that has been put into the project prior to their admission. Consequently, as Brooks noted, the introduction of these workers will be counterproductive to the entire project since they will utilize time which is what such a project requires the most.

2. An increase in the number of workers in a project necessitates additional communication paths which may lead to a breakdown of fundamental processes if not well managed. It will take time to sync the new workers and allow the figure out “how things work”.

1. Personally, I feel Brooks’ principles are rational and justified in as much as every project is usually characterized by unique situational factors. . When we add people to a late project, resources are needed to show, inform and train the new workers. This can complicate the project and create confusion among ongoing processes. Furthermore, that will delay the project and will increase the number of communication paths because more resources are required to distribute information about the project besides spending extra time. As I have mentioned in advance, there can be expectations or different solutions, adding more people to a project can be helpful when it is done in an early time of the process. Nevertheless, quantity and quality can play a very pivotal role to bring a project to its expected schedule. The number of new workers interacting with their skills and ability to perform a good work can be very meaningful if it is well chosen. Well programmers whom they won’t take time to conform to a late project would speed the schedule up and survive with the project.

Question4

1. Given a project running late, there is need for adjustments in the entire process and there is not a better and least harmful strategy as working overtime. When workers work more hours, more work and processes will be over with in shorter time and within the same network of people. This strategy can be implemented at late time of a project or when a project is about to finish but it is running out of time. This strategy may cost the project more money in order to provide overtime resources. Besides, overtime working might affect the quality of the project and the performance of ongoing processes. Due to overtime working, people may get tired and won’t perform that good to implement their goals which considered as a risk or disadvantage of such a management strategy.

2. To reduce the likelihood of further slippage in the remaining tasks, more resources will be allocated to the remaining tasks so as to ensure that they are completed well beyond schedule by understanding and specifying the critical paths. The management will employ the Just-in-Time (JIT) approach and supplement it with the total quality management (TQM) to ensure that the outcome is not only timely but meets the required specifications.

Question5

1. Obtaining the project duration involves taking into account the required personnel for the project, that is, for the activities that had no immediate predecessors but were predecessors to other activities, the initial time will be recurred as shown below.

Projectduration = Time taken for (A+B+C+) + Time taken for (D*A + E + B*F +C*G)

= [2 + 4 + 3] + [1*2 + 6 + 2*4 + 4*3]

=7 + 20

=27 days

1. The critical path for the project is ABCG.

Thisis because this provides the longest path without predecessors.Additionally, this path results in the highest number of daysaccounted for by a balanced resource allocation without which theentire project would lack a fundamental grounding.

Question6

Theduration of each activity as well as the earliest start time (ES),earliest finish (EF), latest start (LS), latest finish (LF), andslack for each activity are as shown in the table below.

 Duration ES EF LS LF Slack A 6 4 2 7 7 0 B 9 2 7 1 2 3 C 3 0 2 8 7 6 D 3 2 7 6 12 4 E 1 0 0 4 0 0 F 6 2 7 0 5 5 G 9 2 3 7 7 1