InstructionalMethods and Evaluation of Learning
Teachingseems to be an easy task, but a lot goes in terms of planning beforea teacher just hit the class and execute his or her role. Imagine ifa teacher came to teach that lesson you took without some prior plansand drawn course of action. Chaos would be unlimited and theobjective would not be met. It is therefore the reason why teachersand all the parties concerned spend huge resources and timedeveloping a guide to learning and drawing a functional lesson planto guide teaching students at all levels of learning.
Alesson plan is a well-developed document that provides a guide toteachers on what to do and is expected to achieve in a class. A goodlesson plan ought to have a number ofaspects in order to make itappropriate for use in the context of students and help teachers toeffectively and efficiently execute their mandate. Further, it helpsto provide standard in the education system in order to promote andharmonize the education system in the area of jurisdiction. Some ofthese parts are the title, introduction, learning objectives andassessment. Some of these parts are mandatory while others are onlyrecommended to add value.
Asequence of learning and the time allocated is also necessary inorder to optimize learning and manage time while at the same timereducing redundancy and boredom. Spending a lot of time teaching oneparticular subject is not only time wasting but reduce morale forteaching. But depending on the learning ability and the type oflesson, time allocated and frequency of learning differs. Science,health sciences, and engineering are allocated a lot of time whilesocial sciences, humanities and arts receive less time. Below is alearning sequence and time allocated for each activity for a healthscience lesson.
Introduction:a maximum of ten minutes will have to be spending on introducing thetopic and giving an overview of what students are expected to learn.It also includes briefly mentioning the instructional techniqueintended to be used.
Learningoutcome: This part of a lesson plan specifies what the students areexpected to learn at the end of the topic. The outcome ought to berelated to the recommended curriculum.
Classtime requirement: time expected to be used on each activity need tobe specified in terms of hours, minutes or even day if applicable.
Materialneeded: materials to be used on the topic have to be specified inthis part clearly and precisely.
Activities:a step to step detail of what the students and the teacher would bedoing during the lesson. The role of each party should be specific,clear and definite.
Assessment:these are the activities that should be used to know whether theobjectives of the lesson have been met. The teacher should specifythe kind of assessment to use.
Theinstructional strategies entail the activities, other than the mainactivity that should be done in order to facilitate learning andunderstanding for the students. These are a recommended part of alesson plan and should not spend a lot of time, less the mainobjective would not be met. Students can be allowed to go and visitthe area that is directly concerned with what they are learning. Forinstance, finance students can visit banks and see how things aredone. Additionally, a specialist in line with the specific field canbe invited to shed some light on the current affairs of the topic.This way, students have a practical chance to learn about what theytheoretically learn and compliment with the practical application(Learnnc.org,2013).
Technologyresources to be used during the lesson should be specified and theinstruction for use the same provided. This includes the computer andother machines depending on the nature of the lesson. Each of therequired resources should be mentioned and if there is analternative, it should be mentioned in the plan. The software andhardware of these technology resources should be specific in the planso that it is possible to standardize. The plan should also specifythe resources for both the student and that expected for students toenhance discipline. Internet is also vital in learning and its useshould be specified in the plan (Pagliaro,2012).
Afterthe activities of the lesson are executed, the teachers need to besure that the objectives of the lesson have been met. Assessment andevaluating the students can help in identifying the level ofunderstanding. Different methodology can be used. Teachers mostly usethe individual continuous assessment tests after some period. Theresults help teachers make appropriate decisions on whether toproceed with the class or review past topics. Others evaluationsinclude a final exam at the end of the lesson period. Group andpersonal assignment also are a strategy to be used in evaluation. Apresentation in class by students on a certain topics is also anevaluation methodology since it involves counter questions to gaugethe level of understanding for the presenting student.
Pagliaro,M. M. (2012). Research-basedunit and lesson planning: Maximizing student achievement.Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield Education.
Learnnc.org,.(2013). Theparts of a lesson plan – Submitting lesson plans – Web Publishing &Collaboration Guide.Retrieved 13 August 2015, fromhttp://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/lnc-collab-manual/1346