I.T Project Management

I.TProject Management

InstitutionAffiliation

I.TProject Management

SignificantRisks and their Impacts

Whenlooking onto the risks, one of the most common risks is the failureto complete the project within the stipulated time. Failure to meettime limit may be as a result of lack of experience and the adoptionof the informal way in implementing the project and system’sdevelopment by the I.T Team. Such risks of not completing the projectwithin the stipulated time may lead to financial losses, as the extratime that would be required for the completion will call foradditional expenses in terms of funds, time and other resources. Theorganization will also be kept backward in terms of development ofresources that would have been used in developing and propelling theorganization will still be directed towards the compensation of theextra time. In my opinion, for the organization to avoid such risks,the head of I.T team need to act in advance and provide any necessaryadditional training who could be having limited experiences in theirarea of practice. Additional training will provide the team with theneeded familiarity to huge projects and will equip them with theskills that are required to work on the big projects in a formal way.

Anothermajor risk that could face the project could result from theapplication of a wrong development program. The wrong program wouldinterfere with the compatibility between the old and the newinformation systems within the project. Since the company hasbranches in three scattered locations, incompatibility would be apossibility in necessary case steps would not be followed. A problemof this kind may land the project into a risk that would cause thesystems failure that would in turn affect the customers’satisfaction. In addition, correcting the problem of incompatibilitywould take a lot of time and energy when it comes to matching theprogram manually. The best response to such risks would requireallocation of enough time for testing the new system besides having acontingency plan in case it could happen. As a result of the plans,the organization will be in a position to respond, as there will be aplan B already in place.

Inaddition, another risk that associates this project would depend onthe size of the project. In case the project gets bigger thanexpected, the project may get an abundant amount of outsources.Moreover, when the company get outsources, it might fail to dealfinancially with them satisfyingly. Failure to manage outsources andfailing to incorporate them into the project in the right manner,could lead to confusion with the ongoing processes. To avoid theconfusion, the organization need to come up with a solid strategicplan that will help in defining the management of outsources and inchoosing the strong and skilled management teams that includescontractors that possess a successful track record in the field ofrunning outsources. The contracts signed with the contractors wouldalso include penalty clauses that would apply in the case of anymisconduct from the contractors.

NetworkDiagram and Work Breakdown Structure

Thecreation of a network diagram will be of importance as it gives aclear vision and critical path for the project. The diagram inquestion consists of logical sequences of the activities andworkflows in the project. On the other hand, the Work Breakdown helpsin breaking the deliverables into many levels of tasks and subtasks.The development of the network diagram was according to the WBS forit to draw a clear that obtain the WBS tasks and implement itsdeliverables. Additionally, it also maintains a schedule for thetasks and indicates independencies between them in drawing thesequences that are followed by WBS. Going for the WBS without anetwork diagram would give the project the image of all taskstogether with the deliverables without considering how they would beachieved. The network diagram, therefore, is a boost to the WBS as itgives a complete picture of how the project would proceed. Besides,the network diagram also assists in finding out the problems that maybe in the WBS about the dependencies schedule activities.

SoftwareSize Estimation by William Roetzheim

Thereare always many approaches for software development that would helpin accurately approximating the project that are usually based on thenumber of lines of codes in three different stages. First, anexperienced estimator set estimations about the project’s conceptthat would be fifty percent more or under the targeted project. Thesecond estimation stage is done after understanding the requirementof the project, and it is known as a function-oriented estimate thatvaries in between a plus or a minus of twenty-five percent from theactual cost. The last stage of estimation is expected to be mostaccurate one, and it is done after the project design is elaborated.This third stage estimation allows the estimator to look at the wholepicture for him to come up with a more accurate estimate that isbetween a plus and a minus of ten percent the actual cost.

SourceLines of Code (SLOC) is a line written in codes and cannot be countedmore than ones during the estimation process. It is of the need toknow the effort needed to write a SLOC before estimation is done. Ifa project can be estimated simply by multiplying the needed efforteach LOC cost and the SLOC in a person month. The equation for theeffort required by the project in person-month would be:

Effort= Productivity *KLOC

Normally,productivity varies from one project to another depending on the sizeof the project, with large projects less productive than small ones.When there is a decreased deficiency based on the size, there is apenalty factor involved that also varies from one project to another.Therefore, the effort of the project can be calculated as follows:

Effort=Productivity* KLSCpenalty

FollowingRoezheim article, there are always two approaches applied inobtaining SLOC. We have the direct estimation approach involving thebreakdown of the project into logical groups. After that, thedevelopers estimate the required number of LOC using their skills inhandling such projects. When the estimators are calculating theirmean and standard deviation, the developers are recommended to setthree estimates for each input variable (Best – Case, Worst –Case and Expected – Case). The calculations are as follows:

StandardDeviation=

Thenext approach involves the function point with backfiring based onthe delivered measured by the use of the mode of ways it interactswith its users. In attaining the actual numbers of function point,the developers multiply a conversion factor with the number of eachentity. The entities are, external interface files, external inputs,external queries and external outputs and logical tables) where theconversion for each is different. The number of function points is tobe multiplied by the numbers of the SLOC using equivalencies of atable language to come up with the necessary number of SLOC. Afterwhich, the effort is calculated using the equation mentioned earlier.