LEADERSHIP THROUGH SPIRITUAL WISDOM 12
LeadershipThrough Spiritual Wisdom
Inthe contemporary society, human beings are increasingly seeking toadopt values where their thoughts and deeds are harmonious. Suchindividuals aspire to live integrity that is necessary for allaspects of our social life. Social institutions are also beingcreated with great reference to ethical and moral values. The essenceis to ensure that human beings can solve the challenges arising fromthe complex and ever-changing social dynamics. It requires people tohave the necessary wisdom to provide adorable solutions. One clusterof people whose wisdom is virtually required to realize success isthe leaders. Whether in business or non-business organizations, theleaders perform critical duties such as supervision, leading andmanagement, among others. Their wisdom is sought by the followers toenhance to enhance the positive realization of the expectedobjectives.
Thepaper will investigate the significance of leadership with spiritualwisdom in Romania. Through the literature review, scientific andpractical evidence that adds value and direction to the study will begathered. Also, the literature analysis will assist them in thecritical and thematic examination of spiritual in the contemporarycontext of Romania. Having come from an autocratic leadership andviolence, the country’s society and institutions need to adoptvalues and norms that conform to the current needs and dynamics inthe contemporary environment. Leading with wisdom entailsunderstanding the purpose of both the external world as well internalfacets of conscience and consciousness. Such leaders perform theirduties by expressing it through the souls and hearts. This form ofleadership is normally regarded as spiritual leadership. Ideally,this form of leadership does not necessarily follow the principles ofmainstream leadership. In most cases, mainstream leadership isinfluenced by power and prestige among the leader. That is the reasonpoverty and other social challenges remain a threat to socio-economicprogression in the world despite the 25 years of globalization. As asociety, there is great need to change our values and principlestowards leadership. We cannot change the society by just creatinglaws and policies, but there is also the need to re-examine ourethical and social norms. Business leaders, for instance, ought tounderstand the importance of creating socially responsible, ethical,and sustainable business.
Inthe 1990s, Romania experienced bloodshed revolution as the countrysought to move a dictatorial to a democratic regime. All the sectorsin the country were affected as the nation went through contemptuouschange (Thomas, Pop, & Bratianu, 2014). Around 2007, the nationformally moved from totalitarian rule and joined the European Union.Since then, the country’s economy and its people have been tryingto adapt to the market-based economy. Various multinational firmshave opened a business in the country with the nation being one ofthe highest recipients of the Foreign Direct Investment. Further, thecountry’s business climate has been restructured with the adoptionof Western management styles and structures. Many firms tookadvantage of the new opportunities that included middle-class andwell-educated population. Based on the changes in the managementstyles, it became apparent that the businesses were respondingpositively. As noted by Thomas, Pop and Bratianu (2014), theexperiences from Romania offer great lessons to the businesstransitions to the emerging economies.
Inhis study, Aioanei (2006) seeks to examine the appropriate leadershipstyles and behaviors suitable for business operators in Romania.Using the information collected from the Romanian leadership styles,practices and preferences, the author researched on two major areasnamely autocratic and democratic styles. He also examines the taskorientation versus relationship orientation to generate importantfinding on the matter under study. The findings indicated that theRomanian leadership was largely autocratic. In particular, about 55percent of the Romanian leaders were authoritarian while 45 percentwere democratic. As such, the majority of the leaders did not involvetheir followers in making decisions. The inclination to theautocratic style was higher in state-owned firms compared to theprivate firms. Essentially, this was driven by the fact that thecountry’s power was largely centralized. Elements of communism andtotalitarian were evident in the leadership styles adopted by theleaders and institutions. It is through these elements that thevalues and norms in the organizations were driven. Moreover, it wasidentified from the study that women are less task-oriented comparedto men. Most of the organizational leaders were authoritarian andtask-oriented. The researcher, therefore, concluded that the earlierdictatorial leadership could have influenced the Romanians styles andvalues on leadership. However, he argued that the organizationalleaders were moving from the autocratic styles to a democraticapproach. In fact, a majority of the respondents preferred thedemocratic-oriented approach as it appeared to favor all thestakeholders (Aioanei, 2006).
Goingforward, the organizational leaders in the country will be requiredto adopt strategies that will consider diversity as major element inthe organizations. The numerous multinational firms and foreignemployees will bring about diversity. Further, the changing dynamicsin the global set-up will require change in the working values andmind-set. Organizational change is inevitable to allow fordiversification of various business approaches and management.Romania has unlimited opportunities and needs that the firms need tomeet. Business analysts argue that the reorganization of businessstructures and processes is necessary to permit new way of thinking.In Romania, it will require the leaders to bypass the traditionaltotalitarian approaches and move to more democratic-oriented styles(Aioanei, 2006). It is for this reason that spiritual leadershipappears suitable in the country.
Thetotalitarian approach lays greater emphasis on the outcomes where theleaders concentrate more on their duties such as supervision. Suchleaders appear to concentrate on the institutional interests withlittle regard on the stakeholders’ interests. The followers workingfor such organizations are rewarded or punished depending on theirperformance. Further, the leaders are largely interested in retainingthe status quo with little regard to the future. They seek faults onthe part of followers so that they can advise on the best approaches.As seen previously in Romanian organizations, autocratic leaders didnot consider the input from their subordinates. It is for this reasonthat the majority of the respondents considered that there is a needto change to the democratic approach where the input of the followersis followed. The task-oriented approach has minimal consideration ofthe ethical values. The style is effective during emergencies and/orcrisis within the organization or nation. This is seen where thebureaucratic procedures are by-passed when quick decisions arerequired. Negative consequences such as high turnover, reduced moraleand working relations are reported under the totalitarian leadership.This results from the fact that the employees work in a less-enablingand motivating environment. As such, creativity among the employeesis significantly reduced as the executives lowly regard their input.Northouse(2010) observes that the leadership style adopted by the executiveshas great influence on the overall performance in an organization.
Oneis required to inspire the followers towards the path of success bybeing part of the campaigns. The strategy enables the followers toachieve the objectives while participating in building the society.According to Singh and Venkat (2008), identifying the strategicdecisions avoid potential problems that emerge during the selectionand implementation of policies. The effectiveness of a leader tocommand and control is essential. Effective leaders can understand onwhen and how to respond to the issues affecting their followers. Theyalso influence their followers through the inspirational approach.Positive influence led to the realization of positive outcomes onboth the performance and profitability of an organization. It focuseson a holistic approach that seeks to bring out the best for thesociety and followers. Leaders can instill the appropriate values totheir followers through their deeds and inspirational approaches.Great leaders inspire through motivation, coaching and recognition oftheir efforts. Further, they influence enviable culture and behavioramong the followers. It is through the adopted values and norms thatthe employees within an institution are able to influence changeswithin the society. Employees and leaders in Romanian organizationshave great responsibility in changing their country for the benefitof all citizens.
Onspiritual leadership, social morality is an important element. Socialmorality fosters the reasoning of the soul so that individuals canadminister their affairs in life. With this in mind, the urge forpower reduces hence resulting in fair practices and positiveoutcomes. Rationally acquired knowledge is open to misuse by thepeople. Such people should ensure they have appropriately ordered andsober character. Devoid of such a mindset, people are likely to turninto cynics and abuse the rule of law. Spiritual leadership considersthe law of the land as much as the inner reasoning (Praag, 2004).Through the spiritual reasoning, a leader and their followers caneasily examine the impacts of their deeds to the society. Sometimes,the leaders and their followers undergo risky moments to ensure thattheir actions are ethical and beneficial to majority of the people.One also needs to have an accommodative nature that enables one tohandle diverse values, needs and expectations.
Ordinarily,the perspective on management has changed in both practice and theoryover the last century. The changes have been necessitated by theadvancement in technology, globalization and business organization,among others. Another critical and sometimes overlooked component isthe human psyche and societal values. While the impact can bepositive or negative, their impact on management cannot beunderestimated. The human factor in the management of enterprises isimportant in the contemporary society (Singh, 2015). It is for thisreason that firms are currently expected to consider issues such asbusiness ethics, and sustainability. Spiritual leaders are requiredto identify the most pressing needs in Romania such as poorgovernance structures, poor economy, and weak institutions amongothers. Such leaders use their interpersonal capacity helped ininfluencing the better policies (Praag, 2004). They are also requiredoffer guidance on things that will result to both short-term andlong-term benefits. In Romania where the institutions are undergoingmassive changes, effective and appropriate leadership is required.Issues such as integrity and accountability are expected of theorganization leaders as seen in various research studies. Beingarticulate on the vision, the leaders make sure that their followersunderstand the importance of upholding good values. Using theirwisdom, the spiritual leaders learn from their mistakes to help indrawing inspiration. A great leader draws inspiration from otherpeople, religion and institutions, among other social facets. Inreturn, they develop incentives that they use to pass the virtues tothe people around them. Adherence to the truth helps in instillingdiscipline among the followers by compelling them to be truthful intheir actions (Pruzan& Mikkelsen, 2007).As such, they use their wisdom and critical thinking to ensure thatthe organizations benefit all the stakeholders. They also entrenchparticipative ideologies where the followers are engaged informulating appropriate policies. Their visionary views drawadmiration hence resulting in sustainable businesses. All along,spiritual leaders believe in simplicity to enhance the interests ofthe followers (Kille, 2007).
Theperspective calls for obedience and teamwork in all the functionaldepartments in an organization. Great leaders who use their wisdomcreate structures and policies that pass the time of time. Being themain planners, the leaders are required to assess whether the plans,principles and instructions issued conform to the objectives of aninstitution. Such leaders utilize their competencies to ensure thatethics and sustainability are considered at all times. Contemporaryeconomists consider that the limited resources and limitless humanneeds have compelled the adoption of ethical leadership. As such,wisdom is required to ensure that the leaders adopt the rightmanagement principles and styles (Northouse, 2010).
Spiritualleadership is derived from the need to understand the needs andemotions of the followers. The leaders utilize the competencies oftheir followers to realize the much-needed outcomes. As such,interpersonal skills are important ingredient as they are tounderstand to understand and recognize the input of every member andunit within their jurisdiction. Further, the organizational leadersmotivate and reward their employees to enhance positive outcomes.According to Vugt,Hogan & Kaiser (2008),good relations between the leaders and the followers result in adesirable working environment. With good leadership, according toLevine and Boaks (2014), the followers can create an efficientplatform that leads to higher performance. Romanian organizationshave to adopt democratic leadership style and structures. This willlead to positive performance as well as enhance the realization ofappropriate linkage between the business environment, leadershipstyles, structure and processes. Such achievements are not easywithout an inspirational and selfless leader to drive the process.Individuals who have adopted spiritual leadership styles devisecorporate strategies that consider the interests and expectations ofboth the external and internal components. Spiritual leaders adoptapproaches that balance the interests of all stakeholders, includinggovernment, business owners and citizens. It is all about generatingsatisfaction among all stakeholders. The organizational leaders inRomania need to influence policies that will enable the countryattract firms and talents from across the world.
Itshould be lost that there are leaders who utilize their positions forself-gain, especially dictators, as was the case previously inRomania. Such leaders may perform well while disregarding theinterests of other stakeholders. In some cases, failure among leadersmay be self-imposed and misuse of the power hence the influence thatcomes with leadership may create failure situations. Other leadersconvert their confidence into an ego, which may make them focus moreon themselves as opposed to the whole team. Some pursue forcefulgoals by exploiting the influence that they may have over theirfollowers. The leaders may transform their vision into an obsessionthat they refuse to let go of despite indications of their inevitablefailure. A leader may fail due to their lack of resilience inpursuing goals. Whereas the leaders should be objective in settingtheir objectives, they should not set very low ambitions or quit atthe first sign of an impending failure (Sean, Bruce, & Fred,2011). Nonetheless, leadership styles differ on most occasionsdepending on the organizational goals and situations. Challengesalso emerge in creating acceptable values that are acceptable to allsince one cannot be forced to subscribe to the established values andnorms. Itis upon the leader to understand the vision, goals, ethics andapproaches that will enhance the achievement of objectives at alllevels. Spiritual leadership requires individuals to possess skillssuch as honesty, courage, intelligence, open-mindedness, andfair-mindedness. Further, such leaders serve the needs of allstakeholders irrespective of their race, religion, and gender.Letting the subjects take part in the decision-making process isimportant for the future of the Romanian organizations. Spiritualleadership is imperative in most institutions as it is consistentwith the changing environment and contemporary needs. Organizationalleaders who lead from a spiritual perspective realize recognition,happiness, and success (Pruzan& Mikkelsen, 2007).As Kouzes& Barry (2011) identified, it is necessary for the leaders toconsider the diverse values and interests within their organisations.Theachievement of high performance and positive attitude among theemployees is dependent on the leadership strategies adopted within anorganization.
Greatleaders can understand and champion for the needs of all individuals.Adopting the right values will enhance the realization of improvedoutcomes that benefit the citizens. As has been identified in thediscussion, spiritual leaders can inspire their followers throughapproach on matters affecting the society. The change from autocraticto democratic perspective in Romania has been instrumental in theadoption of ethical values and philosophies within the country’sinstitutions. Such achievements are only achievable if theorganizational leaders are committed and transformational to guidethe reform process. With the world becoming more dynamic, theorganizational leaders need to inspire the people in the contemporarysociety in areas such as business, politics, and religion. It isthrough progressive thinking that the leaders influence the followerstowards the progress of all members of the society. Leadership is notall about the style and techniques adopted by the leader but ratheropening the heart and trying to understand the interests, needs andcontributions of all stakeholders towards a common goal. Consideringthe economical, ethical, and social facets is necessary to developintegrative and agreeable business approaches in Romania.
Aioanei,I. (2006). Leadership in Romania. Journalof Organizational Change Management,19(6),705-712.
Kille,K. J. (2007). TheUN secretary-general and moral authority : ethics and religion ininternational leadership.Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
Kouzes,J. M. & Barry Z. P. (2011). Thefive practices of exemplary leadership : government.San Francisco: Pfeiffer.
Levine,M. P., & Boaks, J. (2014). What Does Ethics Have to do withLeadership? Journalof Business Ethics, 225–242.
Northouse,P. G. (2010). Leadership: theory and practice.Thousand Oaks, NJ: Sage Publications.
Praag,E. V. (2004 ). SpiritualLeadership: Wisdom for Work, Wisdom for Life.New York, NY: Cosimo, Inc.
Pruzan,P., & Mikkelsen, K. P. (2007). Leadingwith Wisdom Spiritual-based Leadership in Business .Greenleaf Publishing.
SeanT. H., Bruce J. A., & Fred W. O. (2011). Relationships betweenAuthentic Leadership, Moral Courage,and Ethical and Pro-SocialBehaviors. BusinessEthics Quarterly,21(4), 555-578.
Singh,S. (2015). Center for spiritualism and Human enrichent. PurusharthaJournal,Retrieved from http://cshe.smsvaranasi.com/purushartha_journal.htm
Singh,N. & Venkat R. K. (2008). "Self-sacrifice andtransformational leadership: mediating role of altruism."Leadership& Organization Development Journal29.3: 261-274.
Thomas,A. R., Pop, N. A., & Bratianu, C. (2014). Thechanging business landscape of Romania: Lessons for and fromtransition economies.New York, NY: Springer.
Vugt,M. V., Hogan, R., & Kaiser, R. B. (2008). Leadership,Followership, and Evolution. AmericanPsychologist,63(3), 182–196.