MOOCs; language learning; collaboration; cooperative; peer support; same community; less isolated; forum; online post

MOOCslanguage learning collaboration cooperative peer support samecommunity less isolated forum online post

Howmuch do collaboration and cooperation affect language learning?

Collaborationand cooperation are key approaches in language learning. The twoapproaches incorporate group or pair activities in any classroomwhere language learning takes place. Cooperation incorporates variesactivities that chiefly aim at fostering social skills and maximizingthe outlined learning outcomes. It helps learners interact with oneanother in order to achieve a shared goal (Murphy, 2004).Collaborative approach help learners maximize their learning theyare free to choose and negotiate ways and means through which theynegotiate with one another.Peerreview with online forum and in-class presentation performanceenhance learning collaboration.

Peerreviews with online forum enhance ways in which students activelyshare their creative work with one another. It helps them haveconstructive feedback that plays a vital role in revising andimproving their work. Indeed, peer reviews and in-class presentationshelp the learners keep an audience in mind, receive productivefeedback, accept any constructive criticism from their colleagues andteachers, as well as master any necessary revision (Sato &ampLyster, 2012). Similarly, online forum may further play a significantrole in broadening the concept of ‘peers’.Learnersfeel on the same boat/same community and feel less isolation

Learnersshould be encouraged to engage in small group skills as well as workas a team in order to achieve a shared goal. Each member of the teamshould be given a role to play so that they don’t feel isolated.Fair distribution of the roles and work should take place so thatevery learner contributes effectively, without feeling isolated.Again, learners should be advised and encouraged to monitor eachothers’ effort hence, improving the effectiveness of thecontributions from other members groups. Moreover, Curtis and Lawson(2001) argue that the learners should jointly reflect on the progressof their work.

References

Arnold,N. &amp Ducate, L. (2006). Future foreign language teachers’social and cognitive collaboration in an online environment. LanguageLearning &amp Technology,10(1), 42-66.

Beatty,K. &amp Nunan, D. (2004). Computer-mediated collaborative learning.System,32(2), 165-83.

Crandall,J. J.(1999). Cooperativelanguage learning and affective factors: Affect in languagelearning.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Curtis,D. D. &amp Lawson, M. J. (2001). Exploring collaborative onlinelearning. Journalof Asynchronous Learning Networks,5(1).

Dooly,M. (2008). Constructing knowledge together. In M. Dooly (Ed.).Telecollaborative language learning: &nbspAguidebook to moderating intercultural collaboration online,21-44.

Falchikov,N., &amp Goldfinch, J. (2000). Student peer assessment in highereducation: A meta-analysis comparing peer and teacher marks. Reviewof Educational Research, 70(3),287-322.

Heppner,F. (2007). Teachingthe large college class: A guidebook for instructors with multitudes.SanFrancisco: Jossey-Bass.

Johnson,D. W. &amp Johnson, R. T. (2004). Cooperation and the use oftechnology. Handbookof research on educational communications and technology. London:Lawrence Erlbaum.

Kimura,H. (2009). Controversy over cooperative learning: An interview withDr. George M. Jacobs. TheLanguage Teacher,33, 4, 35-40.

Maleki,R. A. (2009). Business and industry project based capstone courses:Selecting projects and assessing learning outcomes. Industryand Higher Education. 23(2),91-102.

Murphy,E. (2004). Recognizing and promoting collaboration in an onlineasynchronous discussion. BritishJournal of Educational Technology,35(4), 421-431.

Ozogul,G., &amp Sullivan, H. (2009). Student performance and attitudesunder formative evaluation by teacher, self and peer evaluators.Educational Technology Research and Development, 57(3),393-410.

Salmon,G. (2002). E-activities:The key to active online learning.London: Kogan Page.

Sato,M., &amp Lyster, R. (2012). Peer interaction and corrective feedbackforaccuracy and fluency development: Monitoring, Practice, andproceduralization. Studiesin Second Language Acquisition,34, 4, 591-626.

Topping,K. (1998). Peer assessment between students in colleges anduniversities. Reviewof Educational Research, 68,3, 249-276.

Vygotsky,L. S.&nbsp (2008). Mindin society.&nbspCambridge,MA: Harvard University Press.

MOOCs; language learning; collaboration; cooperative; peer support; same community; less isolated; forum; online post

MOOCslanguage learning collaboration cooperative peer support samecommunity less isolated forum online post

Collaborationandcooperationare criticalapproachesto languagelearning.Thetwo approachesincorporate grouporpairactivitiesin anyclassroom wherelanguagelearningtakesplace.Cooperationincludesactivitiesthat chieflyaimat fosteringsocialskillsandmaximizing theoutlinedlearningoutcomes(Murphy, 2004).According to a studyconductedby thespringprogramto evaluatewhetherteachingsciencethrough groupworkwill enhanceacademicgainsMaleki, R. A. (2009).Postandpre-test weregivento controlandexperimentalgroups.Lessonswerethenconductedto evaluatethecorporative learningandits effectsto student’sknowledgeof scienceover time.At theendof thestudystudentswhohadparticipatedin groupworkperformedbetterat theendof theyearstest.Cooperativelearningalsoyieldsthesameresults,which is a higherlevel of motivation.Curtis, D. D. &amp Lawson, M. J. (2001) Suggest think-pair-share andjigsaw methodsas thebestwayto undertakecooperativelearning.Think-pair-share involvesteachersaskingquestionsthenstudentspairup, comeup with answersthenshareto theclass.Thejigsaw includessituationswherean assignmentisgivento a particularsubjectmatter,andeachgroupis givena particulartaskto accomplish.Once theyare eachgrouppresentstheir findingto theentireclass.Thiscollaborative wayin which teachersandstudentsengagein realdialog whiletreatingeachotheras equalsmakesthestudentstendto learnthecontent morethoroughlyas opposedto theteachers.Peerreviewswith online forumenhancewaysin which studentsactively sharetheir creativeworkwith one another.Ithelpsthem haveconstructivefeedback that playsa vitalrolein revisingandimprovingtheir work.Heppner, F. (2007) Statesthatthedegreeof improvedlearningis a setof interactionon bothmediumattributesandlearners.Thatsaid,Arnold, N. &amp Ducate, L. (2006) comparestheeffectsof presentationsusingwordsbefore picturesandwordswith pictureson learning.Astudy conductedto evaluatethisphenomenonshowed that thegroupthat hadwordswith picturesperformedbetterthan thosewhohadwordsbefore pictures,andthiswasattributedto theconnectionbetween imageryandverbalrepresentation.Whentextandimagesarepresentedtogether,informationretentiontendsto be improved.Learnersshould be encouragedto engagein smallgroupskillsas wellas workas a teamto achievea sharedgoal.Eachteammembershould havea roleto playsothattheydon’tfeelisolated.Fairdistributionof thetasksandworkshould takeplacesothateverylearnercontributeseffectively,without feelingisolated.Moreover,Curtis andLawson (2001) arguethatalthoughthere might be impedimentsto adequate teachingpractices,there are waysthat can pullequityinto such a practice.Forinstance,researchers havefoundout thatteacherswhosucceededhandlingchildrenfrom diversecommunitiescointhemselves as culturally responsiveteachers.Suchteachersmakethelearnerslivesandcommunitycentralto thelearningprocess.Theanotheraspectis thatteachingtakesinto accountculturaldifferencesin thelearningprocesswhich includesdifferentinteractions,learningstylesvalues,attitudes,andbehavior

References

Arnold,N. &amp Ducate, L. (2006). Future foreign language teachers’social and cognitive collaboration in an online environment. LanguageLearning &amp Technology,10(1), 42-66.

Beatty,K. &amp Nunan, D. (2004). Computer-mediated collaborative learning.System,32(2), 165-83.

Crandall,J. J.(1999). Cooperativelanguage learning and affective factors: Aectin language learning.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Curtis,D. D. &amp Lawson, M. J. (2001). Exploring collaborative onlinelearning. Journalof Asynchronous Learning Networks,5(1).

Dooly,M. (2008). Constructing knowledge together. In M. Dooly (Ed.).Telecollaborative language learning: &nbspAguidebook to moderating intercultural collaboration online,21-44.

Falchikov,N., &amp Goldfinch, J. (2000). Student peer assessment in highereducation: A meta-analysis comparing peer and teacher marks. Reviewof Educational Research, 70(3),287-322.

Teachingthe large college class: A guidebook for instructors with multitudes.SanFrancisco: Jossey-Bass.

Johnson,D. W. &amp Johnson, R. T. (2004). Cooperation and the use oftechnology. Handbookof research on educational communications and technology. London:Lawrence Erlbaum.

Kimura,H. (2009). Controversy over cooperative learning: An interview withDr. George M. Jacobs. TheLanguage Teacher,33, 4, 35-40.

Businessand industry project based capstone courses: Selecting projects andassessing learning outcomes. Industryand Higher Education. 23(2),91-102.

Murphy,E. (2004). Recognizing and promoting collaboration in an onlineasynchronous discussion. BritishJournal of Educational Technology,35(4), 421-431.

Ozogul,G., &amp Sullivan, H. (2009). Student performance and attitudesunder formative evaluation by teacher, self and peer evaluators.Educational Technology Research and Development, 57(3),393-410.

Salmon,G. (2002). E-activities:The key to active online learning.London: Kogan Page.

Sato,M., &amp Lyster, R. (2012). Peer interaction and corrective feedbackforaccuracy and fluency development: Monitoring, Practice, andproceduralization. Studiesin Second Language Acquisition,34, 4, 591-626.

Topping,K. (1998). Peer assessment between students in colleges anduniversities. Reviewof Educational Research, 68,3, 249-276.

Vygotsky,L. S.&nbsp (2008). Mindin society.&nbspCambridge,MA: Harvard University Press.