Newborn/Infant, Toddler, Preschooler, School-Age, Teenager

NEWBORN/INFANT, TODDLER, PRESCHOOLER, SCHOOL-AGE, TEENAGER 14

Newborn/Infant,Toddler, Preschooler, School-Age, Teenager

Explainlanguage development in the first year of life.

Thefirst type of communication by a newborn is usually reflexive that iscrying, facial expression, and movement. Between 3-6 months, thenewborn begins to babble. By babbling the child seems to beresponding to the sound from other people. The sound from othertriggers infant to reciprocate and respond by babbling. At theseventh month, the child adds the capacity to communicate byrepetitive babbling by saying words such as dadada. Between 7-10months, the infant displays a preference to a speech by normalpauses. Additionally, the child develops ability to fluctuate theirpitch (Cardwell &amp Flanagan, 2005). Between 10-12 months, thechild can coordinate their babbling and pointing. At this stage, thechild can use proto-words such as dada, mama, baba.

Discussthe common issues related to growth and development in infancy.

Thefirst year of a baby life is characterized by many changes. Between1-12 months the infant develops in the following areas: Physicaldevelopment here growth is dramatic the baby’s head get bigger, andthe body grows taller. On cognitive development, there is greatadvancement in learning and remembering. Social and emotionaldevelopment here the baby shows signs of how they feel about others.Language development occurs whereby the baby starts babbling somesounds. Motor and sensory development between 1-12 months the childwill have developed ability to sit, and some will even try standing(Tudor, 1981).

Discusshow to assess an infant for normal developmental changes in the firstyear of life.

Fora baby aged between 3 weeks -3 months he or she should be able tosupport the head and hold objects, begun to babble, engage in socialsmiling. At the age of 4-6 month the newborn has gained musclestrength and shows head control, can roll from her stomach to herback and raises her head while lying on her stomach. Additionally,still at this stage the baby laughs and makes eye contact. At the ageof 9-12 months, the baby responds to his name, understand simplecommands and imitate sounds. Furthermore, the baby can sitindependently, stand by holding on to things grasp objects usingfingers and thumbs and find object hiding from him as he watches.

Howto identify the gross and fine motor milestones of the newborn andinfant?

Finemotor skills 2-6 months of age be the child should be able to graspwith both hands, pulls at the cloth, put the object to mouth andreaches for them.

6-9months: bang object, transfers things from one hand to the other andfeed on anything by putting it in the mouth.

Grossmotor skills 2-6 months of age the child should be able to hold headup, roll while lying on the stomach to back and sit when given alittle support.

6-9months the child should make a movement of stepping when supported,crawl forward and pull furniture’s so as to stand.

Aninfant with normal development should have the following gross motormilestone be able to crawl and walk. On fine motor, the child shouldhave the following skills coloring or stacking blocks

Developmentalstages according to the three theorists.

Thefirst developmental stage theory was developmental psychologydeveloped by Erik Erikson, who claimed that psychosocial developmentinfluenced the manner individuals perceive themselves about society.According to him, psychosocial development occurs in eight stages,and only four are experienced in childhood. The first stage is thetrust versus mistrust. This stage takes place from childbirth to oneyear. At this stage, the child formulates trust or mistrustrelationship based on whether the needs are met. The needs referredto here are attachment feeling and physical craving that includesleep, comfort, and food.

Thesecond developmental was developed by Jean Piaget, who comes upcognitive development theory. This is a four stage theory that claimpeople pass from one stage to the next when stimulated to change. Thefirst stages occur between the first month to two years whereby achild begins to develop motor skills. The child has little or noability to conceive things that exist outside his immediate vicinity.

Thethird developmental stage theory was developed by Lawrence Kohlbergthe theory is Moral Stage and Idea of justice. This theory focuses onhow children devise moral reasoning during different stages ofcognitive development. The earliest stage the “conventional”children base their moral thinking on how they are affected.Something is punished, something right is rewarded.

Discussthe nutritional changes through the first year of life write ateaching plan for a new mother.

Duringthe first year of a child’s life, good nutrition is essential fordevelopment and healthy growth. For an infant to grow appropriately,it needs calories, proteins, and other essential nutrients. Anutrition plan for mothers: for babies between 1-6 months of age itis recommended that the child exclusively feeds on breast milk. Thismilk can supply nutrients, energy, and fluid. Breast milk containsimmunological and protective factors that benefit the baby’sdevelopment.

Between6-12 months of age, the baby should be introduced to the solid foodso as to meet the nutritional needs of the baby. However, this doesnot mean that breastfeeding should stop on the contrary it shouldcontinue to twelve months and beyond. The child at this stage shouldbe fed on food rich in zinc and iron.

Toddler

Accordingto each of the three theorists, what significant cognitivedevelopment allows toddlers to engage in imitative play?

Thethree theorists agree that cognitive development in an infant beginsat the age of 1-3 years. Erikson calls this stage autonomy versusdoubt. Piaget calls the stage when a child develops ability toimitate sensory motor stage that occurs between births to two years. Kohlberg stated that children develop moral reasoning during growththis is the significant cognitive development that allow children toimitate during play.

Describethe gross motor progression of walking in a toddler.

Grossmotor skills are movement, which aids toddlers in developing musclecontrol in legs, arms and entire body. Gross motor activitiescomprise of walking, climbing, jumping and running. As the childgains muscle control in legs, he or she is able to walk a few stepsbefore falling (Votroubek &amp Townsen, 1997).

Explainwhat about a toddler`s sensory development puts him or her at riskfor accidental ingestion. Name 3 of the most dangerous potentialpoisons a toddler may ingest.

Thesensory development involves maturing of the five senses that aresmell, touch, vision, taste and hearing the sensory developed thatputs the child at risk for accidental ingestion is taste. Thepotential poison that a toddler may ingest includes householdproducts, plants, and mushroom.

Observea typical house (kitchen, bathroom, playroom, nursery, garage). Listshazards that may be present in each room, and ways to make the roomsafer for a toddler.

Inthe kitchen, there is a hot stove or a hot pan, garbage and disposal,the small appliance including blenders, crock pots, toaster, mixersand can openers. To keep the kitchen safe first the kitchen doorshould always be locked small appliances kept away and secure theoven by ensuring it is turned off after cooking (Holowinski, 2004).In the bathroom, the hazard includes fall, drowning, hazardouschemicals, burns and shocks prevention of this accident can only bedone by strict supervision. In play room the hazard includes Windowblind cords, easy to open windows or broken windows, visibleelectrical cords, furniture that can be pushed over and dirty toyprecaution involves watching out for the above and correcting themistake. In a nursery the hazards are the same as the ones in aplayroom . Moreover, we have the old crib. Precaution involvesrepairing or disposing the crib and regular check up in the room toensure safety. In a garage, almost everything in a garage is a hazardto a toddler thus a toddler should never be allowed there.

Discussan action that parents might take when a temper tantrum occurs.

Nevercondone tantrums discipline the child immediately, take hold of thesituation, make the child understand the world no. To control tantrumfrom occurring in the future give the child control by asking himwhat he want or allow him to make a decision on what to do by leavingthe option open ended. Find ways to distract the child, when a childstart complaining about something for instance he is bored withlearning makes it quick or do away with it. Always give the childenough attention.

Discussthe nutritional changes/requirements as the infant advances to thetoddler.

Theinfant primary source of nutrition is breast milk as the infanttransit from infancy into toddlerhood he or she needs nutrient andenergy that is met by a variety of nutritious foods. Breastfeedingshould be reduced to give room to food from all groups.

Explainwhy allowing children to &quotgraze&quot on carbohydrate-rich foodsthroughout the day may contribute to poor dental health.

Thisis because carbohydrate-rich foods have a lot of sugars that attacksthe child’s milk teeth.

Preschooler

Explain,from a language and comprehension perspective development in thepreschool years.

Thepreschool years are a period when children start learning languagethus developing in terms of spoken language. At this period thechildren acquire semantic development that expands their nouns ofinfancy to complex and relation concepts for example words foremotions, actions and deictic terms like you, I, that and.Furthermore, during the preschool period the children makeconnections with their vocabulary thus coming up with a complexnetwork of concepts and words that are interrelated.

Explainthe gross and fine motor development

Thefine motors development in children occurs when start learning how touse their muscles. When fine motor skills are developed the child isable to write, turn pages and hold small items. To master the finemotor skills, the child requires coordination and precision. Grossmotor development, on the other hand, has to do with the nervoussystem, the muscles, and the brain. The gross motor skills arenecessary for controlling large muscles in the body such as arms andlegs and are involved in crawling, walking and running.

Explainthe difference between nightmares and night terrors. What can aparent of a child with night terrors do to help stop the situationfrom recurring?

Thedifference between nightmare and night terror is that in a nightmarethe child wakes up screaming after a bad dream while as in nightterror the child screams and sits on bed but cannot see the parentbecause they are still asleep. Thus, they return to sleep shortlyafter. To deal with night terror, the child should be left alone togo back to sleep. The parent after sometimes should awake the childand ask him or her to go help himself in the toilet this will ensurethat the child is fully awake before going back to sleep.

Explainthe disciplinary practice of time-out. How does it work?

Timeout is meant to keep children in isolation for sometime withoutattention. It works by decreasing various behaviors in children suchas temper, hitting, not minding and tantrums.

Discussthe preschooler`s development according to the three theorists.

Accordingto Erik Erikson, preschool children are usually in the initiative vs.guilty stage during this period the child copies those around him andis creative in making play situation. The child experiment what itmeans to be an adult by experimenting and often uses the why as ameans of exploring the world. When a child is frustrated with notachieving the natural desires and goals, they start feeling guilty.Piaget on his part called this stage the preoperational stage thatranges between 2-7 years. Pre- means that the child fails to uselogic when separating ideas or transforming. At this stage, the childdevelopment comprises of building experience through adapting to thesituation. Lawrence Kohlberg called the preschool stagePre-conventional morality. The stage where the child avoidspunishment and obedience, the child makes a decision on the basis ofwhat is good for them without regard of how other will feel (Cohen,2011). The child obeys rules when established by strict parents anddisobeys if he believes he won’t get caught.

Makea nutrition plan appropriate for the preschooler. Create a samplemenu.

Theappropriate nutrition for a preschool should comprise healthy foodsuch as lean meats, seafood, poultry, legumes eggs, whole grains suchas cereals and wheat bread. Additionally, the nutrition plan shouldinclude fresh vegetables, dairy foods, and processed fruits.

Asample menu for dinner

½cup of low-fat milk

½ounces meat, chicken or fish

½cup pasta, potato, or rice

¼cup vegetable

School-Age

Identifythe developmental milestones of the school-age child.

Theage here is between 6-12 years, a school-age child should be able togain skills for sports teams, reading skills begin to develop, startslosing baby teeth and getting the permanent teeth. Some girls startshowing adolescent signs at this age, forms relationship outward fromfamily to friends and other. Often stressed by some situations thestage prepares the child for an adolescent.

Statethe scope of the problem of obesity in school-age children. List theteaching guidelines for dealing with this problem.

Globallythere is an increase of overweight and obese children. Obesity hasserious consequences on the health and well-being of a child. Kidswith obesity are likely to suffer from high blood pressure, insulinlevels, asthma attacks, kidney problems among others (Kyle, 2008)..Reducing obesity takes comprehensive effort such as encouraging thechild to take part in regular exercises, nutrition education andfeeding children healthy meals.

Goto www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/medlineplus.html and find&quotAge-Appropriate Diet For Children.&quot Print the section forolder children.

https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/childnutrition.html#summary

Visitthe Kids Health website at www.kidshealth.org. Enter the kids siteand go to &quotStaying Safe.&quot Summarize three different safetysubjects that are age appropriate for school-age children, one fromeach category.

Teenager

Brieflydiscuss each of the five developmental concerns of adolescence.

Thereare many development issues that occur during adolescent such asphysical development where the child experiences changes in the bodyphysically (Ricci &amp Kyle 2009). Emotional development involvesdeveloping a coherent and realistic sense of identity. The boys’starts having manly features such growing beards andshoulder-broadening the girls hips and breast starts enlarging.Cognitive development: this is abstract reasoning that allows theteenager to start thinking about the future and how things are likelyto be. Thus, the teen develops ability to reason abstractly. Socialdevelopment here the teen starts becoming an independent adult, theseparation with parent causes argument as teens tend to disregardtheir parent advice and prefer their peers influence. Behavioraldevelopment occurs as the child transform from childhood to adulthoodthus changing the way he acts or behaves.

Describehow the nurse can help children cope with each of those fivedevelopmental concerns of adolescence.

Aprofessional nurse can help children cope with each of the fivedevelopment concerns of adolescence by explaining to the teenagerwhat is happening to their physical bodies that are causing thechange. On cognitive development nurses ought to check out thefunctioning of an adolescent emotions and functions showingparticular interest on depression and anxiety. The nurses should behelping the adolescent should they notice anything unusual. Onemotional development, the nurse ought to promote resilience so as ayouth can handle emotional challenges coming their way. The nurseshould never criticize a youth who is in the process of self-identityrather a nurse should help them to accept who they are. On socialdevelopment, Nurses should help the youth in implementing particularstrategies to deal with the scary situation this is because at thispoint the adolescent world is shifting from family to peer groups. Onbehavioral development, the nurse should use resilience asdevelopment experience function that is grounded in communitycontext. By doing so, the nurse triggers the community to support theyouth. A resilient youth can resist the urge to engage in drugs anduse his time wisely.

Ingroups of three, each person will choose one of the following: early,middle, or late adolescence. Make a presentation to the rest of thegroup describing the physical changes occurring during that part ofadolescence.

Duringadolescent, the physical changes that occur in girls are start ofperiods, breast development, growth of body hair and body shapechanges such as increase on height. For boys there is growth ofbeards, pubic hair and body hair. The shoulders broaden, and there isa change in height.

Visitthe Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website atwww.cdc.gov. Click on &quotLife Stages and Populations,&quot thenclick on Adolescents, and Teens, then click on &quotSexual RiskBehavior.&quot Print and read information from &quotYouth RiskBehavior Surveillance.”

References

Cardwell,M., &amp Flanagan, C. (2005). Psychology AS: The complete companion.Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes.

Holowinski,M. (2004). The everything rottweiler book: A complete guide toraising, training, and caring for your rottweiler. Avon, Mass: AdamsMedia.

Kyle,T. (2008). Essentials of pediatric nursing. Philadelphia: WoltersKluwer Health/Lippincott Williams &amp Wilkins.

Ricci,S. S., &amp Kyle, T. (2009). Maternity and pediatric nursing.Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams &ampWilkins.

Votroubek,W. L., &amp Townsend, J. (1997). Pediatrichome care.Gaithersburg, Md: Aspen Publishers.

Tudor,M. (1981). *Child development. New York Montréal: McGraw-Hill.