Theconcept of the personality is a very broad one. The personalitytheorists are usually interested in what the individual human beingsthink, do or feel inclusive of how the social situation is affectedor affects the individual. The personality theory looks at not onlythe differences between individuals, but also the basic processes ofthe adaptation by which the individuals interact with the conditionsof their lives. In what we studied in class, I discovered that thedifferent characteristics of the people’s minds and how one’spersonality reacts to the situations at hand. I learned that thepersonality can be defined as the grouped system of the typicalresponses to the various actions and situations, as well as one’semotions and thoughts that makes them unique. There are four maindifferent perspectives dealing with the personality: the traitperspective, humanistic perspective, psychoanalytic perspective andthe social-cognitive perspective (Verweij et al., 2012).
Instudying the personality psychology, there are four main themes used.They include interactive episodes, intrapsychic mysteries,interpretive structures and interpersonal stories. The intrapsychicmysteries are usually based upon the unconscious. The interactiveepisode is the theme that measures the interactions between theenvironment and person. Interpretive structures on the other handdeals with the importance of creating the meaning for oneself. Ittries to explain how the things are interpreted within the humanbeings and then communicated to the rest. Lastly, the interpersonalstories deals with the life span development and the understanding ofoneself based on relationships.
Learningfrom the personality assessment in class made me understand thatone’s personality can be developed over a period of time. Peoplelearn many new things in life that can be developed and intertwinedinto one’s personality. For instance, from birth a person requiresthe external stimulation in learning how to become angry andnegative. It’s true that people aren’t born to hate or be angrywith the people. This is something that develops during the lifetimethat can make one to feel that way. For instance, parents can have animpact on their children in regard to their view on homosexuality.
CarlJung emphasized that intuition influences our inner being. In hisview, “The inner personality is the manner of one’s behaviortowards the inner psychic process.” (Jung and Walsh, 1980). Junghad a strong feeling that the human psyche is driven by the fourunderlying points, feeling, sensation, thought and intuition. Hefurther insisted that the active imagination can be very influentialon the unconscious desires that are usually manifested through thedreams and then eventually emerging on an individual persona.However, Alfred Adler asserted that the individual’s personality isdeveloped in accordance to the surrounding environment. Everyindividual contains the characteristics pertaining to their socialenvironments. Adler believed that an individual’s “style of life”was basically her or his personality inclusive of the goals, socialinterest and self-concept (Adler, 1927).
Additionally,many of the distinctive theories established by Freud, Jung, andAdler can be some of the examples of how the human personalitydevelops over a period of time. These concepts are logical and caninfluence every aspect of the individual personality.
Nowadaysorganizations are faced with the unique challenges in thedetermination of the security of tests used in the selection process.In an attempt to keep pace with the challenges in the economy,technology and business strategy, the organizations have responded byconstructing the testing programs in line with the organizationalneeds. Pre-employment testing is one of the most promising computeradaptive method that can be used in the selection process(Kantrowitz, Dawson, &Fetzer (2011).
PersonalityProfiles in Selection Process
Mostemployers elect to use the personality profiles in the interviewingprocesses in order to identify the people that have the necessaryskills and knowledge for the jobs. One of the best supported modelsthat can be used for measuring the personality profiles is “the BigFive Model”. The basic traits in this model are connected to thejob performance and they are the predictors of the outcomes. Thereare different tests for measuring the Big Five personalitydimensions. However, the NEO-Personality Inventory and PersonalityCharacteristics Inventory are the two most common methods formeasuring the personality profiles. The Personality CharacteristicsInventory is comprised of the 150 multiple choice questions thatevaluates how the interviewee thinks about things. The HoganPersonality Inventory focuses on the normal personality rather thanthe abnormal personality. It is an effective predictor for the jobperformance for varied types of jobs (Yei-Fang &Kleiner, 2004).
Understandingthe personality profiles is helpful for appreciating that even thoughhuman beings are different, each and every one of them has a value,and the special qualities and strengths. Therefore, everyone shouldbe treated with respect and care. Although personality profiles arerecommended as the best practical tools for the employee selection,the validity of any personality measure must be competently andspecifically determined for particular situations in which they areused. This is because personality profiles as instruments for thedecision making in the selection process can only be beneficial afterdoing considerable research with the measure on the particularsituation and purpose.
Whilereputable personality tests are able to tell one what personalitytraits the person has, the tests cannot be able to tell you whetherthe person will be able to succeed in the job. The workingenvironment, corporate culture, management style, practicalexperience and training can have a measurable impact on theperformance of the employee. Therefore, although the tests can tellthe employer some things about the employee, it should not be used inthe places of extensive reference checking and interviewing.
Theuse of the personality theories and testing by the employers hasrisen over the past decade as the employers try to streamline theprocess of hiring. Such selection tests are used to assess skills,personality, the cognitive traits and among others. However, thepersonality tests have sparked a lot of growing concern owing totheir effectiveness and fairness in the employment process.Personally, I think that personality theories and tests are notmeaningful in the selection process as it leads to the discriminationin the workplace. This is because the personality tests can lenderthe jobs to be harder for some of the people to get because they areunable to conform to the rigid formulas.
Inaddition, the instruments that are used for the personality tests donot test the facts. The instruments tests the knowledge, which can besubjective, cognitive and variable, not behavioral. In terms ofaccuracy, the personality tests can be hard to measure with absoluteprecision, particularly in the one hour multiple choice test.Therefore, judging from the aforementioned points, it’s clear thatthe personality tests are not meaningful for the selection process.
Adler,A. (1927). Understanding Human Nature. New York: Barons Press.
Jung,C. G., & Walsh, M. (1980). CGJung Speaking: Interviews and Encounters.W. McGuire, & R. F. C. Hull (Eds.). Picador.
Kantrowitz,T. M., Fetzer, M. S., & Dawson, C. R. (2011). Computer adaptivetesting (CAT): A faster, smarter, and more secure approach topre-employment testing. Journalof Business and Psychology,26, 227–232.
Verweij,K. J., Yang, J., Lahti, J., Veijola, J., Hintsanen, M.,Pulkki‐Råback,L, & Zietsch, B. P. (2012). Maintenance of genetic variation inhuman personality: Testing evolutionary models by estimatingheritability due to common causal variants and investigating theeffect of distant inbreeding. Evolution,66(10),3238-3251.
Yei-FangLin, Brian, L., Kleiner, H. (2004). How to Hire EmployeesEffectively. ManagementResearch News,27, 4, 5.