Personality Psychology


PersonalityAssessment Instruments

“Personalityrefers to an individual’s characteristic patterns of thought,emotion and behavior, together with the psychological mechanismhidden or not, behind those patterns. This is according toFunder.[ CITATION DCF07 l 1033 ].Forquite a number of years now, the notion of psychology has seemed toattract more attention and interest from numerous psychologists. Dueto this curiosity, quite a number of theories and philosophies havebeen used to measure and assess personality. This paper looks at twotypes of personality instruments that most psychologists have beenusing and are still practicing to assess personality. In addition,the paper will discuss how and when each of these instruments weredeveloped, theories behind these instruments, their utilities interms of real world application as well as the validity andreliability of these instruments. Finally, the paper will compare aswell as contrast the two instruments in terms of their benefits anddrawbacks. The two instruments under scrutiny in this paper areRevised Neuroticism-Extroversion Openness Inventory (NEO PI-R) andMyer-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI).

RevisedNeuroticism-Extroversion Openness Inventory (NEO PI-R)

RevisedNeuroticism-Extroversion Openness Inventory (NEO PI-R) is one of themost frequently used instruments among the Big Five traits. RevisedNeuroticism-Extroversion Openness Inventory (NEO PI-R) is known to bea version that was revised from Neuroticism-Extraversion-OpennessPersonality Inventory (NEO-PI). Revised Neuroticism-ExtroversionOpenness Inventory (NEO PI-R) was established for the purpose ofmeasuring three of the Big Five Personality traits. This is accordingto De Raad and Perugini (2002). This instrument is made up of 240items and was basically established through factor diagnosticmethods[CITATION Fri09 l 1033 ].InRevised Neuroticism-Extroversion Openness Inventory (NEO PI-R),subscales for every of the Big Five traits have been planned tomeasure the six sub traits that the measure developers named facets.Revised Neuroticism-Extroversion Openness Inventory (NEO PI-R)comprises of a self-report questionnaire (S Form) and an observerrating form (R Form) for aristocracies toaccomplish, allowing for thecollection of data in form of dyadic [ CITATION Fri09 l 1033 ].

Myer-BriggsType Indicator (MBTI)

Accordingto Carducci, Myer-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a personalityinstrument based on self-report account. This personality instrumentis designed to know a person’s position on the fourpersonality-type personality scopes. According to Carducci,Meyer-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) originated from typologicaltheories of Jung’s [ CITATION Car98 l 1033 ].Thispersonality assessment instrument is widely used by psychologists tomeasures four (4) scopes that are not common. These four scopes areExtraversion-Introversion (E-I), Sensation-Intuition (S-I), JudgmentPerception (J-P), and finally Thinking-Feeling (T-F) [ CITATION Fri09 l 1033 ].According to this instrument, persons have a preference of some waysof behavior, which are used to replicate the four scopes [ CITATION Car98 l 1033 ].In essence to this presumption, Meyer-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)has no ability to assess the abilities of persons because there isnot wrong or right answer. Meyer-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)measures a person’s aptitude by indicating for a single preferencein relation to another preference in regards to the core behaviors [CITATION Que00 l 1033 ].Meyer-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) record is comprised of 126 coupleof items. These couple of items contains a pair of declarations thatreplicate one of the four scopes. For instance, one of the questionsin Meyer-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is, “I don’t cry soeasily”. Respondents are then required to indicate if thisstatement is true to them or false.When the scores of various scopes have been premeditated, the personcan then be categorized in one out of the sixteen possible types ofdimensions [ CITATION Car98 l 1033 ].

Thetwo instruments that I have opted to select from the list are asmentioned in this paper. These are Meyer-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)and Revised Neuroticism-Extroversion Openness Inventory (NEO PI-R).

RevisedNeuroticism-Extroversion Openness Inventory (NEO PI-R) was developedby Neuroticism-Extroversion Openness Inventory (NEO-PI) ,which wasdeveloped to measure and assess three out of five personality traitsin 1971 [ CITATION Fri09 l 1033 ].This instrument is based on the Neuroticism-ExtroversionOpenness Inventory theory of personality. In real world application,Revised Neuroticism-Extroversion Openness Inventory (NEO PI-R)’sutility can be applied in not only community populaces but clinicalpopulations as well. It can also be applied in industrial as well asorganizational psychology. Revised Neuroticism-Extroversion OpennessInventory (NEO PI-R) has been proved to be used in various researchsuch as trying to recognize personality contours of persons who abusedrugs as well as develop drug treatment databases based on theseprofiles [ CITATION Fri09 l 1033 ].RevisedNeuroticism-Extroversion Openness Inventory (NEO PI-R)’sreliability and validity has been reputable. In terms of reliability,Revised Neuroticism-Extroversion Openness Inventory (NEO PI-R)displayed consistency in research by most studies. Constants wereranging from 0.86 to 0.93 for the aspects [ CITATION Fri09 l 1033 ].In terms of validity, RevisedNeuroticism-Extroversion Openness Inventory (NEO PI-R) has been usedin more than 1000 published studies. In addition, this instrument hasconfirmed longitudinal constancy as well as consensual validation.

Myer-BriggsType Indicator (MBTI) was developed in the year 1962 by Myers. Thistheory is primarily based on Carl Jung’s type theory ofpersonality, which was developed almost a century ago in 1921 by Jung[ CITATION Fri09 l 1033 ].Myer-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) has been applied in various aspectsof real world. It is still widely and commonly utilized in education,team development and organizational behavior. It helps personsacquire better comprehension of themselves as it helps in promotingteam work [ CITATION Fri09 l 1033 ].Nevertheless, Myer-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)’s validity andreliability has been questioned over the years. When it comes toreliability, this instrument is not clear and it is also confusing.It hasbeen seen to provide ambiguous descriptions. In terms of validity,Myer-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is very unpredictable [ CITATION Fri09 l 1033 ].

Fromthe above research, there are quite a number of contrasts as thereare comparisons between the two instruments. For starters, RevisedNeuroticism-Extroversion Openness Inventory (NEO PI-R) measurespersonality behaviors whereas Myer-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)evaluates types. Revised Neuroticism-Extroversion Openness Inventory(NEO PI-R) is focused on assessing a person’s quantitative traitwhereas Myer-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) assesses a person’squalitative trait [ CITATION Fri09 l 1033 ],which are referred to as categories or classifieds.One of the similarities is that both Myer-Briggs Type Indicator(MBTI) and Revised Neuroticism-Extroversion Openness Inventory (NEOPI-R) has been very useful in many as well as varied spheres. Thebenefits and drawbacks of each instrument have been fully explored inthe previous paragraphs in this paper.


Carducci, B. J. (1998). The Psychology of Personality. Carlifornia: CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.

Funder, D. C. (2007). The Personality Puzzle (4th Edition). New York: Norton, pg 5.

Johnsson, F. (2009). Personality Measure Under Focus. Personality and Individual Differences (Vol, 1), 2-6.

Quenk, N. L. (2000). Essential Of Meyer-Briggs type indicator assessment. New York: John Willey &amp Sons.