Political and Economic Systems; USA, China and South Africa

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Politicaland Economic Systems USA, China and South Africa

Notwo countries in the globe have exactly the same form of politicalsystems or the economic systems. The last period of the 20thcentury was effective in shaping the political and economicfoundation of the current systems used in different countriesglobally. The end of the Cold War, the collapse of the communistrule, Taiwan and South Korea getting out of authoritarian past, andmarching towards the aspect of democracy, as well as ending ofapartheid in South Africa, or these somewhat marked a new dawn todifferent nations. However, democracy isn’t the only form ofgovernment in the world, but as different the government may be, allare in an attempt to fulfill same objectives. Different countrieshave different have different form of government, which is one of thedeterminant of the country’s political system

Inaddition, different countries have different economic systems or theprocess in which they have adopted towards the production andexchange of goods and services in addition to the allocation ofresources to its societies. Political and economic systems ofdifferent are different in the way each function, as well as theresources and institutions each depends on. This paper focuses on acomparison between the political and economic systems of threedifferent countries from different continents. These countries areChina from Asia, South Africa from Africa, and USA, from NorthAmerica.



UnitedStates is one of the prominent and sought after nation in the globe.One of the major characteristics that make the country stand out isthe country’s political system. The United States is known as oneof the oldest continuous democracy in the globe, having establishedin 1789. However, the political system has undergone numerousevolutions to its current form. The United States is known for itsrepresentative federal democracy that is propelled by elections. It’sthrough the election whereby citizens as well as lobbyists withdiverse interest compete (Libraryof Congress).The country’s political system is highly dependent on the country’sform of government which federal government. The country’spolitical system is highly influenced by the two major politicalparties in the country which are the democrats and the republican. Inaddition, the politics of the United States are also influenced bythe media and the interest groups (lobbyists). Moreover, thedifferent interests of citizen are influenced by their race,backgrounds, age, as well as the types of jobs they do (TheEconomist n/a).

Thepolitical systems in the United States entail the use federalgovernment, which on the other hand is made of three distinctbranches i.e. judicial, executive, and the legislative (BetterPolicies For Better Lives). Due to its form of government, thecountry’s is known to practice a representative form of democracyas citizens, through elections elect representatives in the national,state and the local government (DonaldTrump`s brazen genius).


Theeconomic system is one of the aspects that define what a country isand strives for as well as its driving force in terms of economicactivities. The United States has the markets and the primary force,and in turn the United States has been dubbed as a market economy. Inthe United States economic system, there are three major playerswhich are the consumers, producers and the government. Theinteraction between these three key groups makes the economyfunction. However, despite the economy being known as a marketeconomy, it’s also known as mixed economic system due to thecombination of command economy and free market economy. However, thecountry tend to be more free market economy, and less of the commandeconomy, and intern the name ‘MarketEconomy’(Commanding Heights). The United States economic system has beenestablished with its main goals been efficiency, freedom, equity,security, growth and stability within the nation.

TheU.S economic system has all its focus on the people, as it givespower for individuals to own property, and make contracts, as well asmake individual choices. The system also allows economic competition,within the limited involvement and regulation of the government. Theproducers also have the power to produce what they want and for whothey want. On the other hand, consumers have the power to buy fromwhoever they want, and what goods they want.



Differentcountries shave different political systems, as well as systemsdiffer from one continent to the other. China is an Asian country,which has been known for its political system, as well as its vibranteconomic activities. The country’s political system refers to itslaws, rules a regulation, and political structure, as well as thegovernment formation, power, and the relationship between society andthe state (Better Policies For Better Lives). The country is knownfor its socialist system. The country’s political system is thebasic definition of the type of government adopted in the country.China political system lacks a competitive election. The country isdefined by one party in power, the CPC (CommunistParty of China),but there are other 8 parties which contributed to the country’spolitical arena through CPC.

EconomicSystem of China

Theeconomic status of China has been one of the most reflected uponeconomies due to its recent growth in recent years. With the numerouseconomic reforms have been experienced in the country, the socialismstate has been replaced with a capitalist system, which has in turngenerated rapid growth, hence elevated china to one of the largesteconomies. The socialist market economy was practiced by the People’sRepublic of China (PRC), and was based on the dominance of thestate-owned. The government has been key in identifying the keyeconomic plan to be adopted in the country. The government createsand plans a central economic plan for all its key sectors as well asregions in the country. The economic system of china has thegovernment as the key to all it allocates as it manages the resourcesthrough the identified central plan (Confuciussays, Xi does).The economy targets at exploiting the country’s capital, labor aswell as natural resources, in the most effective way. Additionally,the china’s system is denoted by setting of priorities forproduction of all goods and services. The Chinese government takescontrol of the sectors deemed important to the economic stability andgrowth. With the deployment of the command economy, the country hasbeen successful at mobilizing economic resources in the mosteffective, efficient way.



SouthAfrica is one of the most developed nations on the African continent.The republic of South Africa is regarded as a federal state. Itcomprises national as well as provincial governments. Since the endapartheid the South African political system has significantlyevolved. Like the American structure, the South African system ofgovernment is comprised of three branches which are the executive,legislative, and the judicial. South Africa’s politics andgovernment system have been one of the stables in the continent, aswell as being attributed to the country’s growth in terms ofeconomic performance. However, the president in the South Africangovernment is elected by the national assembly (Shrivastavaand Sanjiv 815).

Thepolitical system of the South Africa is defined by the constitutionaldemocracy of the country. Through colonization, much of the politicaland government formations have been impacted by the impacts ofcolonization and most importantly the issue of apartheid. Under theconstitution, the country’s national assembly is selected torepresent the people of South Africa, which in turn elects thepresident. On the other hand, there are different political parties(Better Policies For Better Lives). The National assembly in thecountry is vested with powers, and in turn sometimes described as aparliamentary democracy.


Interms of the country’s economic system, the country’s economicpolicy is guided by the country’s need to achieve economic growthas well as need to address the high levels of inequality,unemployment, and poverty levels in the country. South Africa ischaracterized by an abundance of natural resources which has been thekey sources of country’s economic activity, and income. Thecountry’s political system plays a key role in the development ofits economic system, as well as its capitalized banking system. TheSouth Africa economy has a marked complement, with a refinedfinancial and industrial economy, which have grown alongside anunderdeveloped informal economy. South Africa records a regular mixedmarket, capitalistic economic system and is the economic powerhouseof Africa. Much of African nations has been impacted by thecolonization, and adopted the systems of the colonizers after theindependence the government controls the economic activity of thecountry (SouthAfrica Economic Update: Fiscal Policy and Redistribution in anUnequal Society).

Comparisonbetween the Three Countries

Asmentioned earlier, it’s clear that different countries havedifferent political systems as well as different forms of government.With reference to the political systems, the United States is markedby modern democracy, even though its political aspects are controlledby two major political parties. This unlike the case in china, thegovernment is made of one major political party that control thecountry’s politics. On the other hand, the political aspect inSouth Africa is greatly impacted by the numerous political parties inthe country and the government is constituted of one that has themajority number.

Onthe other hand, the country’s political system’s impacts thecountry functions on the economic front. Unlike the United Statesgovernment, the South African leader or the president is elected bythe national assembly members, while in America he (The president)is elected by the people, which is the case in china as well.However, the way the Chinese and American politics are conducted isdifferent from each other. South Africa is a distance behind the twocountries (US and China), in terms of both economic development andpolitical stability due to its historical backgrounds. Unlike unitedstates, the chine economic system is controlled by the government onthe larger part, while in the united states, the economic process hasthree parts or arms that control it (Shostyaand Joseph 192).These are the government, private investor and the consumer. In thecase of South Africa, the country’s economic activity is greatlyinfluenced by the government.

Effectson Relative Progress towards Economic Growth, Fair Distribution ofIncome, And Economic Opportunity

Thecountries, political and economic systems activities have been thekingpin behind each of the country’s development. In the case ofSouth Africa, the political system as well as the economicperformance. This due to the fact that, the economic systems ensurewhat is produced and how the available resources are used for thecitizens’ benefits. The South African economic systems have been onefforts to reduce the unemployment in the country as well aseradicate or reduce the levels of poverty in the country. On theother hand, the country’s political system has been the basis forthe ensuring that the South Africans play a part in forming thegovernment, which in turn passes the law on how the country’s resources will be used. In addition, both political and economicsystems in South Africa have strived to achieve equality among thepeople in the country. This after the apartheid incident, as wellmarginalization of women in the community (Confuciussays, Xi does).Both systems have embraced and offered the minority groups as well aswomen in the country’s administration and business world hencebrining along the essence of equality. With its rich in mineralsSouth Africa have embarked on fair distribution of the nationalincome, employment to improve people’s income as well as offeringconducive economic opportunities

Thepolitical system in China has been credited for its ability tocontain the country’s strong sectors such as industrializationtowards realization of the country’s economic growth. China’seconomic system has embarked on promoting the local industries, andin turn improving the country’s living standards through theprovision of employment. In addition, due to its population growth,and the availability of cheap labor, china has in turn utilized thecommand approach to expand its local industries. In the modern times,the country is believed to surpass other economies due to its massivegrowth in the recent decades. Through the support of the local marketand industries, the economic systems have increased incomedistribution among the Chinese people. In summary, the country’seconomic growth has been credited for the change of the politicalaspects of the nations, and in turn enabling them to exploit theirpotential in production and consumptions of goods.

Lastly,the United States stability both economically and politically havebeen credited to the countries strong foundation of its democracy. Inaddition, the economic stability of the country has managed toattract foreign investors, which have greatly improved the countriesperformance in terms of economic aspects, and in turn contributing toeconomic growth. Through the provision of the private (Confuciussays, Xi does).Each of the countries systems, both political and economic, strivesto achieve form and implement the best suited ideologies for theircountries’ development. In summary, the political and economicstability of each country is used to determine the level of countriesdevelopment. United States are referred as the developed nation,china on the other hard is yet to achieve the American status in termof development, while South Africa is gaining rhythm and on the trackto achieve the same as its two other counterparts.


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