QUALITATIVE METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN 6
QualitativeMethodology and Design
QualitativeMethodology and Design
Researchmethodology and design are exceedingly critical methodology helps inexplaining the methods used in developing a research and datacollection methods. On the other hand, study design is critical sinceit helps in understanding the framework used in a study. In thisreport, the methodology and design used in the article, "TheApple iPad™ as an Innovative Employment Support for Young Adultswith Autism Spectrum Disorder and Other Developmental Disabilities",will be discussed. The report will evaluate how well the researchmethodology and design has answered the research questions. In thereport, sample, sampling procedures, instrumentation, datacollection, and data analysis will be analyzed.
Descriptionand Evaluation of the Research Methodology, Approach, and Design
Thestudy used the iPad™ as an instrument used in life-coaching,therapy sessions, and vocational training. This acted as anantecedent intervention for assisting every participant in attainingmore independence and mitigating the need for a one-to-one jobsupervision or coaching (Hill et al., 2013). Eight individuals, whowere receiving services from Triumph were selected for the iPad™study. However, only three individuals comprising of two females andone male were chosen in demonstrating how Assistive Technology (AT)such as the iPad™ can impact independence. The three individualswere trained, received an iPad™, and received follow-up trainingafter two months. Different applications for the iPad™ becameselected for assisting the individuals with organization, tasksequencing, anxiety management, scheduling, appropriate behavior,waiting, and coping skills. Training on the iPad™ became emphasizedthrough weekly life coaching as well as therapy sessions. Theresearch design entailed the use of case studies in understanding theworking of the iPad™ in the accomplishment of independence. Theresearch methodology and design were appropriate in answering theresearch question. This is because the methodology as well as theresearch design has provided a great foundation for the research,which aid in answering the research question.
Descriptionand Evaluation of the Sample and Sampling Procedures
Inselecting the sample, eight individuals receiving services fromTriumph became selected for the iPad™ use. However, out of theeight individuals, three individuals were selected for demonstratinghow the iPad™ can impact independence as an assistive technology(Hill et al., 2013). Thus, the three individuals comprised therepresentative sample. These included one male and two females. Theselection of the three individuals out of the eight is not clearsince it has not been provided for in the research. Besides, thesampling procedures used by the research were not elaborated.Overall, it can be argued that the sample and the sampling procedureswere not appropriate for the methodology as it was not clear how thesample was selected and cannot be judged if it constituted arepresentative sample of the eight individuals receiving servicesfrom Triumph. The research just indicates that out of the eightindividuals receiving services from Triumph, three were involved indemonstrating the working of the iPad™. There is no procedureindicated for choosing the three individuals.
Descriptionand Evaluation of the Data Collection Procedures
Incollecting data concerning the Triumph project, the research usedcase studies in order to obtain information regarding the use ofiPad™ as an assistive technology in impacting independence. TheiPad™ was the chief instrument that was seen being critical in thedevelopment of the data collected. The use of iPad™ was perceivedas being socially valid by all stakeholders because of its ease ofuse, portability, age-appropriateness, the positive social image ithelped create, and versatility. Based on the identified needs of thethree individuals, applications were chosen accordingly. After theseapplications were selected, they were then introduced in the trainingsessions. Through the case studies, it was possible for audience tomake conclusions based on the effectiveness of the iPad™ ininfluencing young adults having DD to gain independence. Incollecting data about the use of the iPad™ and its impactsconcerning independence, the behavior of the three individuals wasfirst observed prior to the introduction of the iPad™. Then, aftersome time, the iPad™ was introduced to the three individuals to seewhether there would be a change in their behavior. After theintroduction of different iPad™ programs, it was noticed that thebehavior of the three individuals changed particularly, independence(Hill et al., 2013). The data collection procedures were appropriatefor the research methodology and approach since they were in aposition to explain how the data was collected for answering theresearch question.
Descriptionand Evaluation of the Data Analysis Procedures
Themethod of data analysis used by the research entails topology. Thisis because the research classified the three individuals according totheir needs. The procedure was such that three individuals becameselected based on their needs and input from life coaches and programdirectors. These individuals were introduced in training sessionstwo individuals were put in training within a small group setting,while one person was put in a different setting where she receivedindividual training. When in the training sessions, different iPad™applications became introduced in order to understand how thebehavior of the individuals would change. The behavior of the threeindividuals after the introduction of the iPad™ applications werecompared to their behavior prior to the introduction of the iPad™applications. After comparing the behavior of the three individuals,conclusions were made concerning the iPad™. It was concluded thatthe iPad™ having the AppleTMMedsLog application was a device that can be used in any setting asan alternative stimulus for providing cues and reminders for takingmedication (Hill et al., 2013). Thus, the iPad™ can aid individualswith ASD or other developmental disabilities gain independence. Thedata analysis procedures were appropriate for the methodology andapproach since they were helpful in providing answers to the researchquestion.
Inthe Triumph Project, the methodology used can be consideredappropriate. This can be judged from the data collection approach,instrumentation and data analysis. The research methodology anddesign were appropriate in answering the research question. This isbecause the methodology as well as the research design has provided agreat foundation for the research, which aid in answering theresearch question. Data collection was through case studies. Throughthe case studies, it was possible for audience to make conclusionsbased on the effectiveness of the iPad™ in influencing young adultshaving DD to gain independence. The data collection procedures wereappropriate for the research methodology and approach since they werein a position to explain how the data was collected for answering theresearch question. The instrumentation was appropriate since iPad™was used and it was deemed as being socially valid by all thestakeholders. However, it can be argued that the sample and thesampling procedures were not appropriate for the methodology as itwas not clear how the sample of three individuals were selected.
Hill,A.D., Belcher, L., Brigman, E.H., Renner, S. & Stephens, B.(2013). "The Apple iPad™ as an Innovative Employment Supportfor Young Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder and OtherDevelopmental Disabilities". Journalof Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, volume 44, issue 1, pages28–37.