QuantitativeMethodology and Design in Okimoto and Heilman’s Article
QuantitativeMethodology and Design to Okimoto and Heilman’s Article
Okimotoand Heilman’s article, “The ‘Bad Parent’ Assumption: HowGender Stereotypes Affect Reactions to Working Mothers,” is adescription of a research study that employs an experimental approachto put across its findings. The article talks about how mothersworking in male positions, experience additional anxiety because ofthe unfounded assumptions about their gender stereotypes, assumptionsbased on their competency at the work place (Creswell, 2003). Thestereotypes are in spite balancing between family commitments andwork, which is a significant reason for the strain for majority ofworking parents.
Thearticle is based on four experimental studies that shows workingmothers appear to be less effective as compared to nonworkingmothers. These experimental studies disregarded the notion thatassumptions based on stereotype can be bias, especially withcompetence expressions of the working mothers in majority of familydomains (Creswell, 2003). The purpose of this paper is to describeand evaluate the research methodology, approach, and design of thechosen article by looking at its appropriateness in answering theresearch questions. Additionally, the paper aims at looking at thesample and sampling procedure used data collection procedures, anddata analysis procedure used in the research and guiding theinterview questions.
Descriptionand Evaluation of the Research Methodology, Approach, and Design
Okimotoand Heilman’s article used an experimental approach in itsfindings. Both authors preferred this approach in their researchsince it allowed them to determine whether certain stimulus or anevent is the actual cause in regard to stereotyped-based workingwomen. Creswell (2003) noted that in an experimental approach, theresearchers, Okimoto and Heilman in this case, randomly assignedthose involved to engage in different conditions. An experimentalstudy of this research study was done through assigning individualsinto two groups – one group of individuals would assign otherpeople to study for an extended period of time and another group tocarry out the study in short segments.
Inthe article for example, Okimoto and Heilman made sure that theirresearch methodology incorporated all participants studying the samematerial. One section of the participants focused on working mothersand the other paid attention of nonworking mothers. The participantswere involved within the same environment, but different setting.According to Creswell (2003), the research methodology used in thatkind of research study should only be done and completed in exactperiod of time allocated.
Descriptionof the design used employed a correlation approach, which involvedthe inability of the researchers to control the environment that themothers, both working and nonworking, occupied. The experimentalresearch used in the study was based on the research methodology thatwas met by three criteria, in which the dependent measures was usedto determine the anxiety levels of stay-at-home mothers had ascompared to the working mothers. The research methodology wasappropriate for determining the research hypothesis. Okimoto andHeilman’s use of experimental approach to come up with findingswere appropriate in answering the research questions.
Descriptionand Evaluation of the Sample and Sampling Procedures
Samplinginvolves selection of a small group (sup-group) from a widerpopulation. The sample used in the articled, involved a small groupof working and nonworking women that form sample – a representationof a wider group. The sample, according to Creswell (2003), is oftenof similar trait for example, gender, trait, income, and age. Thesample used in the article is that of gender – women. There arevarious sampling procedures to be used, which is also dependent onthe kind of research study. The research study in question employed astratified sampling procedure.
Agroup of individuals selected – women, in a wider population, werechosen. The procedure, according to Creswell (2003), should firstreflect accurately on specific segments of the population inquestion. The research study used women from both divides to besamples. Specific traits or segments are identified to be important,while the sample and research is controlled in ensuring that thetraits are uniformly represented. The sampling procedure in theresearch study is appropriate because played a significant role onthe eventual findings of the study. It also saves time since itfocuses only on the sample rather than the whole population.
Descriptionand Evaluation of the Data Collection Procedures
Toproceed from general to more specific questions in a research study,according to Creswell (2003), makes research activities of a specificproject become more focused. This is often in regard to the data,which is needed to answer specific questions before, during, andafter a research study. Okimoto and Heilman’s article wasresearched and compiled, but first, they their research plan wasdivided into two stages as part of the data collection procedure.They first began with compilation of research questions, went throughwhat others had earlier done, and modified their own questions, andthen came up with a set of a theory or hypothesis. Secondly, theydecided on the research design, either qualitative or quantitative,and then compiled their conceptual framework.
Thedata collection procedure used in compiling the article documentedwith the use of four experimental studies. The documented studiesshowed evidence that highlighted how working mothers were seen to beless effective mothers as compared to their nonworking counterparts.The two researchers did face-to-face interviews with the mothers aspart of their quantitative data collection method. The face-to-faceinterviews were accompanied with the use of questionnaires. Mothers,both working and nonworking, were presented with questionnaires withappropriate questions that were relevant to the study. These forms ofdata collection were appropriate and the approach provided a sense ofanonymity and privacy in responding to some of the sensitivequestions. The approach also helped in saving time.
Descriptionand Evaluation of the Data Analysis Procedures
Accordingto Creswell(2003),data analysis is a continuous activity that not only provides answersto research questions, but also gives appropriate direction to futurecollection of data. After the topic of study is chosen, which in thearticle chosen, involves mothers, literature survey is conducted. Theresearchers took a survey in homes and offices to collect the data.This was followed by the research paradigm and research methodology.After all is done, data analysis is carried out on the data collectedbefore the final report is done.
Thedata analysis procedure concluded that the findings included that the‘bad parent’ assumptions was evident on the mothers and not thefathers. The first finding showed the assumption was made whenmothers are working on “male-oriented” occupation. Secondly, itshowed the stereotype was tensed when job success was apparent.Finally, identical patterns were observed only in interpersonalappeal ratings (Creswell,2003). Dataanalysis procedure used, which involved intense scrutiny on thefindings, was appropriate since data collection were based onface-to-face interviews and questionnaires.
Inconclusion, the paper focused on Okimoto and Heilman’s article, andmore specifically on description and evaluation of quantitativemethodology, approach, and design that was employed in the article.The findings were based on the samples and sampling procedure, andeventual data analysis of data collection. Some of the samplesincluded nonworking and working mothers. Data collection, based onthe samples, were done through face-to-face interviews and filling ofquestionnaires. The appropriateness of the research methodologyfocused more on saving time and correct analysis of the findings.
Creswell,J. W. (2003). Researchdesign: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method approaches.Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications.