Sociology Forums 303


SociologyForums 303

Thereare three chief abnormal forms of adaptation to the division of labordeveloped by Durkheim these include the anomie, lack of internalcoordination, and enforced division of labor. The anomie occurs when,because of technology or any other reason, super-structuraltransformation lag behind base transformations. Alternatively, theenforced division of labor occurs when there is a disconnection amidthe social structure and the prevailing perceptions of economicjustice. In such a scenario, the regulations that have already beenformed do not correspond to lived realities. This implies that, inorder to maintain the developed rules in this division of labor, itis necessary to use force. Due to the use of force, this division oflabor is perceived to be the source of civil war and dissension. Onthe other hand, lack of internal organizational coordination is basedon the functions of an organism, where an organ becomes more activeif there is a condition that another organ is more active. In casethis continuity is in absence, the functional activity of the partsdecreases, which results in wasted effort and productivity capacityloss (Ritzer, 2011).

Durkheim’sconcept of the forced division of labor compares to Marx’s basicthesis on labor in a capitalist society. Marx traces the source ofthe enforced division of labor to the rules of capitalism, whichresults in alienation and exploitation. Marx provides that thedivision of labor is usually perceived in the perspective of theformation of classes. On the other hand, for Durkheim, the anomicdivision of labor is perceived as the dominant fact. According toDurkheim, he sees force as just a temporary situation that isassociated with anomie since force disappears the moment new rulesbecome institutionalized for cooperation of groups and thecoordination of functions (Ritzer, 2011).


Ritzer,G. (2011). ClassicalSociological Theory, (6th Ed).Boston: McGraw Hill.