Test Review

TestReview

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TestReview

Apersonality test is basically the instruments that are standardizedor questionnaire created to ascertain the psychological makeup or thecharacter of an individual. These tests were discovered during late1920s solely to provide an efficient means of selection of personnelmainly the armed forces. There are several types of personality testsbut only two tests will be discussed in this paper. These are: TheCalifornia Psychological Inventory (CPI) and The MinnesotaMultiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) tests (Cohen,Swerdlik &amp Sturman, 2013).

TheCalifornia Psychological Inventory (CPI)

TheCalifornia Psychological Inventory (CPI) comprises a self-reportinventory developed by Harrison Gough. This test was initiallypublished in the year 1956 and the last edition was done in the year1987. Its composition is similar to that of the Minnesota MultiphasicPersonality Inventory (MMPI) both sharing 194 items. CPI is focusedto test the daily folk concepts that normal individuals can utilizeto evaluate the behavior of people around them (Cohen,Swerdlik &amp Sturman, 2013). This test is composed of 434true-false questions, 194 of these questions are sourced from theinitial version of the MMPI. CPI is assessed on 18 scales, with threeof them making up the validity scales. In the non-validity scales,eleven are chosen by comparing the different responses by groups ofpeople. The remaining four were then assessed as valid based on itscontent. But on the contrary, these developments were not designedusing factor analysis and as a result these scales possess similarconcepts and are mostly inter-correlated (Lauster,1976).

These18 scales are categorized further into four different divisions. These are: the test of ascendancy, interpersonal adequacy and poisesecondly, the tests of responsibility, character, socialization andintrapersonal values thirdly, the test of intellectual efficiencyand achievement potential and fourth division is the test ofinterest modes and intellectual modes (Hoffman, 2001). These scalesgive an in-depth exposition of themes of personality which are viewedmainly to be cross-cultural and clearly understood globally. It istherefore, apparent that these tests display the personality factorsusually common except some view cases occurring to a given degree inall individuals beyond the restriction of culture. This indicates theindividuals comparative stable features and characteristics, thuselucidates their unique personality.

Thistest is usually used with individuals aged 13 years and above. Tocarry out this test, the process involved takes approximately 45-60minutes. The current edition of the CPI makes provision that requiresfalse and true answers from the patient to be converted with an extracost into raw scale and scores which are appropriately standardizedby the publisher. The publisher in turn is required to offer awritten report with the analysis.

Therelationship between CPI scales and its related external criteriaoften is given in the ranges of .2 to .5.This level of comparisonrepresent the normal standard mostly used for personality research.Considerable higher correlations cannot be easily attained forpersonality tests because the normal assessments of these scales arefocused on more general behavioral tendencies.

Thedifferent types of norms are present that can be used by femalesonly, males only and joint male/female data. CPI has been a widelyused test in current research for individual assessments of adultsand adolescents (Lauster, 1976). Bearing in mind that this waslargely normed and initiated on non-psychiatric populations has madeit termed universal owing to its usefulness and good reputation amongpsychologists (Cohen,Swerdlik &amp Sturman, 2013).

TheMinnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

TheMinnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is the bestpersonality test instrument which is popular and mostly used. It hasbeen widely researched and accepted psychometric test used for adultpsychopathology and personality (Lauster, 1976). There are differentversions of MMPI which are used by the psychologists and other mentalhealth professionals to provide differential diagnosis create thebest possible treatment plans assess job candidates during thepersonal selection process utilize as a component of therapeuticassessment procedures assist answer legal questions (Hoffman, 2001).

Theearlier MMPI that was initially published in the year 1943 was latermodified in 1989 to an updated version referred to as the MMPI-2. In1992, another edition for adolescents was developed called MMPI-A.And the last edition was done in 2008 to give a better version of thetest called MMPI-2 restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF)(Cohen,Swerdlik &amp Sturman, 2013). This edition maintains several aspectsof the original MMPI test strategy, but significantly differs in thatit uses a different theoretical approach to personality testdevelopment (Cohen, Swerdlik &amp Sturman, 2013).

Thistest is counted as the gold standard for testing different types ofpersonalities from the time it was incorporated as a major assessmentof adult personality structure and psychopathology. To improve itsassessment credential the test has undergone several modificationsover the years such as the introduction of a number of validity,supplemental and other additional content scales to increase theanalysis of the traditional scales (Lauster, 1976).

MMPI-2is used to test adults of 18 years and above. This test has beencalibrated with 567 items which at most cases can take approximately1 to 2 hours to process according to the level reading in use. Inlight of the manner with which this test is operated, it is createdin such a way uses a six-grade reading level. This MMPI is rankedthird in the discipline of psychology behind the achievement and IQtests which are mostly used (Hoffman, 2001). MMPI-A version wasdeveloped to target adolescents of 14 to 18 years in the 1992. Thiswas initiated in order to boosts personality test and addresses thedifficulties of behavior among the adolescents.

TheMMPI-A contains 478 items that is composed of 10 clinical scales, soxvalidity scales, 31 Harris Lingoes subscales, 15 content componentsscales, the personality psychopathology five scales , three socialintroversion subscales and six supplementary scales(Cohen,Swerdlik &amp Sturman, 2013) . This version of scale addresses theproblem of earlier version which provided inadequate content of theyouth, insufficient norms for the youth and a challenge of heightenedreporting. For instance, most of the information was given withminimal perspective from youth but rather from adult perspective andlargely neglected adolescents crucial contents.

Themost recent edition entails MMPI-2-RF, which is the improved type ofthe MMPI-2, introduced in 2008.It utilizes integrated statisticalmethods and was made by the Pearson Assessments (Lauster, 1976). Thisversion gives theoretically grounded scores which are structuredhierarchically with some set of scales such as the RC scales.

Differencesbetween the two assessments

Thoughthe two assessments were created in the same manner, having 194 itemsin common, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)differs considerably from the California Psychological Inventory(CPI). While MMPI measurement is concerned with the clinicaldiagnosis CPI was created mainly to test the daily concepts thatordinary individuals uses to depict the behavior of the people. TheCPI test is composed of only one type, that is the modern thirdedition which has 434 items while on the other hand, the MMPI is madeof three types, MMPI-2, MMPI-A and MMPI-2-RF (Cohen,Swerdlik &amp Sturman, 2013). Therefore, MMPI makes a betterassessment tool because it can be used specifically depending on theage of the individuals to be assessed. The versatile nature of MMPIthus helps provide the best possible results with much reduced errorscompared with CPI.

CPIprovides essential information regarding particular maladjustmentsexperienced by an individual which is a positive coverage whencompared with MMPI test which is inclined to the pathologicalaspects. This makes CPI the best personality test instrument when onewould like to assess the bigger spectrum of individual traits. Inaddition, the CPI possesses direct scale names that make it easy tounderstand especially by the professionals who are inexperienced oruntrained. This differs significantly with MMPI test which has a bitmore complicated scale names and thus is not friendly to poorlytrained or inexperienced professionals (Lauster, 1976).

Concerningthe duration of assessments, the CPI offers an appealing option inthat, it used to predict and indicate the short- and long-termbehaviors in comparison with the MMPI test that is not appropriatefor future predictions. Many cultures do not identify easily with theMMPI test because it somehow clash with those cultures, hence its usehas been restricted. On the other hand, CPI has many concepts thatare present in many societies and cultures hence makes it highlightedadapted method (Hoffman, 2001).

References

Cohen,R., Swerdlik, M., &amp Sturman, E. (2013). Psychological testing andassessment. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Hoffman,E. (2001). Ace the corporate personality test. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Lauster,P. (1976). The personality test. Radnor, Pa: Chilton Book Co.

Test review

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TEST REVIEW

Testreview

Stanford–BinetIntelligence Scales

TheStanford-BinetIntelligence Scale is standardized intelligence and cognitiveabilities tests that is widely used in both adults and children. Thetest can be administered to children from the age of two years andadults as old as eighty five years or older. However, it is importantto note that the test was originally developed for use in educationalsettings where it was used to determine children’s cognitiveabilities and place them in the most appropriate educational setting. However due to its ability to measure intellectual and cognitiveabilities in individuals of all ages, the use of the test has beenexpanded to non-educational uses. Additionally, Stanford-BinetIntelligence Scale has been used in the diagnosis of cognitive andlearning disabilities as well as delays in mental development inchildren as well as special abilities and giftedness. As a result,Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale is widely used in both educationaland clinical settings (Ruf, 2003).

Stanford-BinetIntelligence Scale is one of the oldest intelligence and cognitivetest dating back more that one hundred years. Although there havebeen numerous changes in the test, the test was first used by BinetSimon in 1905. However, the modern form of Stanford-BinetIntelligence Scale was published in 1916 and has been revised fourtimes in 1937, 1980, 1986, and more recently in 2003. The most recentversion of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale is the fifthedition, commonly referred to as SB5, which was published in 2003.There are several changes that have been done on every subsequentversion of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, which have beenaimed at improving the test by incorporating new ideas. Some of thechanges that have been included in the fifth edition, when comparedto the forth edition includes “the layout of the test, normingstandards and the underlying theoretical structure of the instrument”(Ruf, 2003).

Thenew version of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale is used toassess intelligence and cognitive abilities of persons between theage of two years and 89 years. The test is administered by aqualified tester individually to a test taker. One test contains 10subscales and lasts between 45 minutes and 90 minutes. Stanford-BinetIntelligence Scale mainly assesses three major areas of an individualintelligence. This includes “general cognitive functioning, verbaland nonverbal intelligence and five CHC factors formed into groupsalong verbal or nonverbal measures”. The CHC factors include “fluidreasoning, knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual specialprocessing and working memory”. The CHC factors are based on theCattell-Horn-Carroll cognitive theory, an amalgamation of threetheories, and forms the five composite scores of the fifth edition ofStanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (Roid, 2004).

Thefluid reasoning measures the “ability to solve verbal and nonverbal problems using inductive or deductive reasoning”. InStanford-Binet Intelligence Scale test, the test taker ability todetermine the relationship between verbal and non verbal informationprovided is measured. There are several subtests in both the verbaland nonverbal domain of fluid reasoning. Knowledge measures the“accumulated fund in general information acquired at home, schoolor work”. It involves the evaluation of learned materials and theability of the individual to store it in long term memory. Knowledgecontains both verbal and nonverbal domains subtests such asvocabulary and procedural knowledge. Quantitative reasons measure the“individual’s facility with numbers and numerical problemssolving whether with words problems or with pictured relationships”.This includes the measure of individual mathematical abilities,addition and subtraction skills, geometric skills, functionalrelationships, linear and algebraic transformations andrelationships. Visual spatial processing measures the ability of theindividual to see and interpret the relationships between patternsand spatial orientation. The individual is assessed on the ability tounderstand spatial concepts and their relationships andinterpretation of shapes and patterns. Working memory refers to a“class of memory processes in which diverse unformation stored inshort term memory is inspected, sorted and transformed. TheStanford-Binet Intelligence Scale tests the ability of an individualworking memory to function normally using subtests in the verbal andnon verbal domains (Roid, 2004).

Stanford-BinetIntelligence Scale is both reliable and valid test in assessing theintelligence and cognitive abilities of individuals.There areseveral reliability tests that have been conducted on the latestversion of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, which includes“split-halfreliability, standard error of measurement, plotting of testinformation curves, test-retest stability, and inter-scoreragreement”. These tests confirm the validity of the fifth editionof the Stanford-BinetIntelligence Scale test. Multiple studies indicate that the IQ scoresof individuals using this test are relatively stable when conductedat different times (Roid, 2004). The internal inconsistencies as wellas interscorer correlation have also been varied. Additionally,Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale has been established to have higheraccuracy and precision even in cases where the test taker has arelatively higher level of performance. This means that the test isreliable in testing children with special abilities and measuringgiftedness. Although the reliability of the Stanford-BinetIntelligence Scale has been doubted due to the effects of testingprocedures familiarity, practice and retesting, multiple studiessuggests that this has insignificant effects on the score andtherefore does not affect reliability. This has been proven to betrue even in cases where the test is conducted with an interval ofsix months (Bain&amp Allin, 2005).

Stanford-BinetIntelligence Scale is also a valid intelligence and cognitive abilitytest. The content validity of the test is based on professionaljudgment and supported by fairness of the items. Additionally, theassessments of giftedness in special ability individuals have alsobeen used to validate Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale tests. Thecurrent edition of Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, SB5 isconsidered to be more valid when age trends are considered whencompared to other previous versions(Bain &amp Allin, 2005).

However,there are basic concerns and precaution that should be taken whenusing Stanford-BinetIntelligence Scale in testing intelligence and cognitive abilities.Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale is one of the best methods used intesting individual intelligence in clinical and educational settings.However, intelligence testing attracted numerous ethical concerns,especially when there is a likelihood of discrimination or incorrectassessment. Thus, despite being one of the best methods, it isunethical to administer the test incorrectly. Therefore, precautionneed to be taken to ensure that the test is administered and theresults are processed by competent individuals. The test can be usedin the assessment of individuals of all ages. However, the test hasbeen disparaged for not providing comparative assessment fordifferent ages. This is due to the different subsets administered todifferent age ranges. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale is alsocriticized for not giving due consideration to other factors that mayaffect the score such as the unwillingness of a child to take thetest. For example, majority of preschool test takers have very lowscore and thus, there is a risk of discrimination of particular agegroups (Bain&amp Allin, 2005).

Insummation, Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale is one of the commonlyused intelligence and cognitive ability tests in both clinical andeducational setting. This is due to the validity and reliability ofthe tests, as well as the fact that it can test individuals of allages. However, the test requires a well trained and experiencedpsychologist to conduct the test.

References

Bain,S. K., &amp Allin, J. D. (2005). “Book review: Stanford–Binetintelligence scales, fifth edition”. Journalof Psychoeducational Assessment,23, 87–95.

Roid,G. (2004). Stanford–BinetIntelligence Scales, Technical Manual, Fifth Edition,Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing.

Ruf,D. L. (2003). Use of the SB5 in the Assessment of High Abilities.Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing Company.