The Greek Adventure

THE GREEK ADVENTURE 4

TheGreek Adventure

TheGreeks werean indo-European nomadicpeoplewhomigratedintotheGreek peninsulaat around 2000 B.C.E. Their historycan bedividedinto three epochs theMinoan-Mycenaean lastingfrom 2000 B.C.E to theinvasionof thepeninsulain the1100s, theHellenic Period that lastedfromtheperiodof invasionup to mid300s. ThethirdepochwastheHellenistic Agethatlastedfrom 300BC to thefirstcentury.Thesethree epochshadandstillhavea significantinfluenceon artsandscienceof westernandAsian civilizations(Pouwels, 2014). Their organizationanddevelopmenthelpedthem to conquertheir formeroverlords andmountan expeditionagainst Troy. However,Greece entereda darkageof culturalregression following theDorian Invasion, endingaround the800s. Thedarkageswerefollowedby a culturalascentthat culminatedin theremarkablecivilizationknownas theClassic Age, beginningfrom 500 to 325 BCE (Pouwels, 2014).

DuringtheclassicalAge, thepolis of Athens becamethemostcriticalof themorethan two hundred city-states. Athensevolvedthrough variousformsof governance, beginningfrom militarygovernance to democraticgovernance that hadsomelimitations.Themaritimeandcommercialsupremacyof the polis ensuredits rise tobecomethemostculturally significantpolisin Greece. After defeatingthePersians in thetwo Persian wars,Athens attemptedto dominateover othercity-states butitfacedincreasedoppositionfrom theconservativeandmilitaristicSparta. Thetwo city-,AthensandSparta, wereengagedin supremacybattleswhereSparta emergedvictoriousin 404. Seventy yearslater,King Phillip of Macedonia tookadvantageof thecontinuedrivalrybetween Greece Polis during theHellenic periodto imposehisrulethroughout Greece in thebattleof Chaeronea (Pouwels, 2014).

Alexanderextendedhis father’sambitionsby conqueringtheeasternworldas itwasknownby Greek, makinghim one of themostremarkableindividualsof his time.HeconqueredEgypt andlaterinvadedPersia into theunknownborderlines of India. Hethushelpedin creatingthelargestempirethat isyetseenin History. Alexander establishedmanytownsin theconcurredregions,majorityof which stillbearhis name(Pouwels, 2014). HethenrecruitedGreeks tooccupyandruleover theconcurredterritories.Heurgedthem to intermarry with thelocals, leadingtotheemergenceof a mixedculturethat blendedboththeGreek andAsiatic cultures.TheconqueringGreeks adeventriedto establishpolisin theconqueredterritoriesbutfaileddue to westerners’ inexperienceinmattersof governance of polis.Later,theyadoptedthemonarchical formof governance. After thedeathof Alexander, theconcurredempirewasruledby his sonwhowasprematurelykilledat theageof sixteen, leadingto thedisintegration of theempireto kingdom(Pouwels, 2014).ThoughAlexander didnot conquerIndia, conqueringtheneighboringnationshada significantinfluenceon Indians culturesandpoliticalreorganization.Itdisruptedtheexistingpoliticalbalancein northernIndia, creatinga powervacuumthat helpedin conqueringtheMauryan Dynasty adlatertheKushan Empire.TheconquestintroducedCentral AsianandIndian worldsto thewesternworldsandpromotedthecreationof traderelationsbetween them (Pouwels, 2014).

Inconclusion,Greekhistorystartedin 2000BCE andcan be dividedinto three epochstheMinoan-Mycenaean, theHellenic Period andtheHellenistic Age. Greeks havewitnessedallformsof governance, startingfrommilitarygovernance, limiteddemocracyandmonarchiesin conqueredterritories.Alexander’s conquestsledto interactionswith theoutsideworld,creatingmixedculturesthat blendGreek andAsiatic cultures.

Reference

Pouwels,R. L. (2014). Worldcivilizations: Volume 1.Australia : Wadsworth, 2014.