Therehave been many controversies surrounding the residential schools. Theresidential schools were introduced in order to educate and care forthe minority in Canada during the 109thcentury. In its development of the aggressive assimilation, theCanadian government saw the residential schools as a perfectenvironment where the ideal culture would be introduced to thechildren in bid to diminish the native culture in the region. Overtime, the residential schools became controversial due to increasedcases of sexual, physical, and mental abuse that the children inthese schools were suffering from. It is important to understand thatregardless of the culture that any individual is associated with,everyone deserves to be treated equally. With the increased cases ofabuse in the residential schools, the residential schools have becomea hub for human rights violation in Canada. This paper describes theresidential schools and the violation of human rights of the childrentaken to these schools.

  1. Background information

  1. Definition of a residential school

  2. The number of residential schools that had been introduced

  3. The general expectations of the Canadian government on the introduction of residential schools

  1. Genesis of problems

  1. Where problems started

  2. Cases reported

  3. Raise of concern

  1. Timelines

  1. What happened between the years

  1. Society and government response towards the issue

  2. The apology made by the government

  3. Truth and Reconciliation commission

  4. Changes made and results

  5. Recommendations

  6. Conclusion


Blackstock,Cindy. &quotThe Canadian Human Rights Tribunal on First Nationschild welfare: Why if Canada wins, equality and justicelose.&quot&nbspChildrenand Youth Services Review&nbsp33,no. 1 (2011): 187-194.

Thisarticle describes the issue concerning the human rights violation ofchildren in the residential schools. The article analyzes the issueby describing how the children have been denied and justice over timeand how the policies that the Canadian government has made haveaffected the human rights of the children living in the residentialschools.

Chansonneuve,Deborah. 2005.&nbspReclaimingconnections: understanding residential school trauma among Aboriginalpeople.Ottawa: Aboriginal Healing Foundation.

Inthis book, the author has explicitly stated that the aboriginalchildren in the residential schools have been facing trauma. In heranalysis of the situation, the author has stated that the trauma thatthe children living in these schools have been facing is largelyconnected to the lack of proper framework by the government ingoverning these schools.

Corntassel,Jeff, and Cindy Holder. &quotWho’s sorry now? Governmentapologies, truth commissions, and indigenous self-determination inAustralia, Canada, Guatemala, and Peru.&quot&nbspHumanRights Review&nbsp9,no. 4 (2008): 465-489.

Thisarticle is a response to the apology that the government made inregard to the violation of human rights in the residential schools.Even as the article recommends the government for making an apologyto the country regarding the implementation of the residentialschools, the article points a finger to the same people in thegovernment who introduced the schools.

Grover,Sonja C. 2014.&nbspChildrendefending their human rights under the CRC communications procedure:on strengthening the convention on the rights of the child complaintsmechanism.

Thebook was aimed at providing an analysis of the CRC communicationsprocedure in light of the violation of human rights in theresidential schools in Canada. The book affirms that the childrenliving in the residential schools have been traumatized and theirrights ignored by the same government that sent them there. Thecontent of the book is largely based on the proof from the complaintsfrom the people who have been in the residential areas.

Kirmayer,Laurence, Cori Simpson, and Margaret Cargo. &quotHealing traditions:Culture, community and mental health promotion with CanadianAboriginal peoples.&quot&nbspAustralasianPsychiatry&nbsp11,no. sup1 (2003): S15-S23.

Themajor reasons why the residential schools were built is because, theCanadian government want to eradicate the traditions of the nativepeople who were living in the region. Due to the increase in thecases of violation of human rights within the residential schools,the book has tried to answer questions on the mental problemsexperienced by people who underwent trauma when they were admitted inthese schools.

Lenzerini,Federico. 2008.&nbspReparationsfor indigenous peoples: international and comparative perspectives.Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Asmentioned earlier, the Canadian government set up the residentialschools in order to eliminate the indigenous people living in theregion. The book has emphasized this point by analyzing the situationat both local and international levels. The book has compared thesituation with other cases on an international level wheregovernments were trying to eliminate the indigenous traditions byemploying certain methods that did not auger well with human rights.

Miller,James R. 2000.&nbspShingwauk`svision: a history of native residential schools.Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.

Thisbook provides a detailed history of the start of the residentialschools in Canada. The best part of this book explains how theCanadian government felt that they needed to get rid of the nativetraditions and the best way would be creating a facility that wouldintroduce their offspring to the new culture of civilization.

Milloy,John Sheridan. 1999.&nbspAnational crime the Canadian government and the residential schoolsystem, 1879 to 1986.Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press.

Thisbook asserts that the decision of the Canadian government to isolatenative offspring from their environment was a crime. The bookexplains how the children underwent mental and physical torture,which not only affected their growth and development but alsoaffected their perceptions about life while living behind brickedwalls.

Niezen,Ronald. 2013.&nbspTruthand indignation: Canada`s Truth and Reconciliation Commission onIndian residential schools.

Thisbook was written in light of the realization by the Canadiangovernment that it had made a wrong decision on introducing theresidential schools to the children of the natives. The book outlinesthe step that the Canadian government took in formation of the Truthand Reconciliation Commission, whose major aim was to show how it wascommitted to making all the people feel that they are being servedequally by the Canadian government regardless of their traditions.

Regan,Paulette. 2010.&nbspUnsettlingthe settler within: Indian residential schools, truth telling, andreconciliation in Canada.Vancouver: UBC Press.

Thebook provides a detailed level of history on how the Canadiangovernment was working hard in unsettling the natives in their ownland. The content of the book shows the historical injustices thatthe Canadian government practiced in forcing people to civilization.The book has however shown how the Canadian government was in aposition to reevaluate its position on the matter by setting up areconciliation strategy that was aimed at showing solidarity in equalrights and justice for its entire people.

Ross,Jeffrey Ian. 2012.&nbspAnintroduction to political crime.Bristol: Policy.

Thisbook discusses various political crimes that have been committed andthe impact they have had on the people. The setting up of theresidential schools by the Canadian government has been described asone of the political crimes committed in Northern America, whichaffected scores of natives from the region. The book described howthe political crime will remain to affect thousands of students whospent their early days in the residential schools, and how thesepeople will never forget how the government subjected them tophysical and mental torture by sending them forcefully to thesefacilities.

Smith,Andrea. &quotBoarding school abuses, human rights andreparations.&quotJournalof religion &amp abuse&nbsp8,no. 2 (2006): 5-21.

Thisjournal describes widely school abuses, human rights and reparationson various parts of the earth. However, the journal mentions of theresidential schools in Canada and the abuse that the students inthese schools faced. Even though the book does not provide a detailedanalysis of the abuses during the time, it creates a clear image ofthe torture that these students underwent and the effect that it hadon their growth and development.

Smith,Andrea. &quotNative American feminism, sovereignty, and socialchange.&quotFeministStudies&nbsp(2005):116-132.

Thisbook describes the human injustices in America through history. Thebook identifies feminism, sovereignty, and social change as the mainfactors that have shaped justice in America. The book has also listedthe introduction of the residential schools in Canada as one of thehistorical injustices that have shaped Canada. The book has provideddetailed information about the influence of the residential schoolson social and justice systems and how the government came to learn ofthe mistake that it did in introducing the residential schools.

Torpey,John C. 2003.&nbspPoliticsand the past on repairing historical injustices.Lanham, Md: Rowman &amp Littlefield Publishers.

Thisbook is very informative on the various historical injustices thathave been experienced globally. The book has quoted the introductionof the residential schools in Canada as one of the historicaljustices that the American society has seen. However, the aim of theauthor of this book was to show how these past injustices have shapedthe society and how people and governments are now able to see thingsfrom different perspectives as compared to the past.