TheStudy of English Language
Thestudy of English language by learners who take as a second languageis not bearing desirable fruits. Most of these students face a lot ofdifficulties when they reach the proficiency level (Cook,2013). Clark attributes this difficult to insufficient and poorly plannedinstructional method in schools. The learning of English proves to bedifficult than expected. The current teaching methods do not servethe learning needs of students and, therefore, teachers should changethe way they approach teaching.
ELDprovides teachers with instructional directions. However, itsdefinition and approach does not cater for the comprehensive languagedevelopment in learners. Clark identifies various changes that arenecessary for teaching the language. First, teachers should dedicatemore time for the lessons tan they currently do. Individuals learntheir first language during their childhood in a natural environmentover a long period. For this reason, the thirty minutes allocated forthe lesson every day are not enough to fully acquaint the learnerswith sufficient skills in English. Secondly, the teachers shouldapproach the issues both directly and explicitly by giving discreteinstruction in pronunciation and decoding. It helps in viewing thelanguage as a skill that requires learning rather than a naturaltheory (Gedney, 2009).
Also,the teaching should be hierarchical. Learners should showrecognizable milestone in The English language as they progress fromone level to another. Clark finally indicates that teachers shouldprovide foundational skills to learners before they introduce them tograde-level contents (Gedney, 2009).
Clarkpresents the STAR that is a model with five components that mark thecore principles of learning English as a language. The model tries tocorrect the faulty instructional methods that teachers use that donot yield desirable results. Gaining knowledge on these aspectsrequires looking at them into details (Gedney, 2009).
First,as a learner one should have a deep acquaintance with phonology. Thatis, tuning the ear to the sound of a language. For the students tounderstand it with ease, the teacher should break down the languageinto sentences and them into words. The teacher should then break thewords into simple syllables. The use of rhyme and alliteration canhelp in getting the clear sound of the syllables. Understandingmorphology is also imperative since it acquaints learners with theconstruction of words. Learning how base words combine with affixeshelps in gaining a deep knowledge of the English language (Gedney,2009).
Teachersshould also introduce the use of syntax that involves theconstruction of grammatically correct sentences (Rutherford,2014). Tounderstand it well, learners should use simple phrases to make simpleand complex sentences. It will help them t o understand the differentparts of a sentence.
Finally,Clark introduces the use of Semantics and Lexicon. Teachers can helplearners gain knowledge of this aspect by helping them identify themeaning of words, analyze them and use them in their specificcontexts.
Asa teacher, one can integrate the teaching of grammar in the learningof English as a second language (Rutherford,2014). Everystep in the five components of the model reflects the basic grammarskills. The construction of grammatically correct sentences requiresunderstanding the different parts of words and using them in theirright contexts. The model is an integrative process of learningEnglish, and each stage presents the teacher with a chance toemphasize the use of words correctly and in the most meaningful way.
Gedney,S. (2009). Structuring language instruction to advance stalledEnglish learners. AimingHigh. Santa Rosa, CA: Sonoma County Office of Education (www. scoe.org).
Cook,V. (2013). Secondlanguage learning and language teaching.New York, NY.: Routledge. :
Rutherford,W. E. (2014). Secondlanguage grammar: Learning and teaching.New York, NY.: Routledge.